Hellenica World


Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum (2): Eumetazoa – Parazoa
Phyla (36): Acanthocephala – Annelida – Arthropoda – Brachiopoda – Bryozoa – Cephalorhyncha – Chaetognatha – Chordata – Cnidaria – Ctenophora – Cycliophora – Echinodermata – Echiura – Gastrotricha – Gnathostomulida – Hemichordata – Kamptozoa – Kinorhyncha – Loricifera – Micrognathozoa – Mollusca – Myxozoa – Nematoda – Nematomorpha – Nemertea – Onychophora – Orthonectida – Phoronida – Placozoa – Platyhelminthes – Porifera – Rhombozoa – Rotifera – Sipuncula – Tardigrada – Xenacoelomorpha
Source(s) of checklist:


Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 emend.

Metazoa Haeckel, 1874
Zooaea Barkley, 1939
Gastrobionta Rothmaler, 1948
Euanimalia Barkley, 1949


Main page: Animalia (classifications).


Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page.
Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2013: Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703(1): 1–82. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.1 reference page

Animal biodiversity publishing

Blagoderov, V. et al. 2010. Streamlining taxonomic publication: a working example with Scratchpads and ZooKeys. ZooKeys 50: 17–28. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.539
Penev, L. et al. 2010. Editorial. Taxonomy shifts up a gear: New publishing tools to accelerate biodiversity research. ZooKeys 50: i–iv. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.543
Penev, L. et al. 2010. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples. ZooKeys 50: 1–16. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.538
Penev, L. et al. 2011. Interlinking journal and wiki publications through joint citation: Working examples from ZooKeys and Plazi on Species-ID. ZooKeys 90: 1–12. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.90.1369
Smith, V. & Penev, L. (eds.) 2011. e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity science. ZooKeys 150 contents
Valdecasas, A.G. 2011. An index to evaluate the quality of taxonomic publications. Zootaxa 2925: 57–62. Preview PDF
Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Describing unexplored biodiversity: Zootaxa in the International Year of Biodiversity. Zootaxa 2768: 1–4. Preview PDF
Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Accelerating biodiversity descriptions and transforming taxonomic publishing: the first decade of Zootaxa. Zootaxa 2896: 1–7. Preview PDF

Methodology in zoological taxonomy

Assis, L.C.S., De Carvalho, M.R. & Wheeler, Q.D. 2011. Homoplasy: from detecting pattern to determining process in evolution, but with a secondary role for morphology? Zootaxa 2984: 67–68. Preview (PDF)
Brown, B.V. 2013. Automating the "Material examined" section of taxonomic papers to speed up species descriptions. Zootaxa 3683(3): 297–299. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3683.3.8 reference page
Chakrabarty, P. 2010. Genetypes: a concept to help integrate molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. Zootaxa 2632: 67–68. Preview PDF
Coleman, C.O., Lowry, J.K. & Macfarlane, T. 2010. DELTA for beginners. An introduction into the taxonomy software package DELTA. ZooKeys, 45: 1–75. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.45.263
Cruickshank, R.H. & Munck, L. 2011. It’s barcoding Jim, but not as we know it. Zootaxa 2933: 55–56. Preview PDF
Ebach, M.C. 2011. Taxonomy and the DNA Barcoding Enterprise. Zootaxa 2742: 67–68. Preview PDF
Faith, D.P. et al. 2012. Corroboration assessments and recent progress towards integrative systematics: a reply to Farris and Carpenter. Zootaxa 3235: 65–68. Preview (PDF)
Farris, J.S. & Carpenter, J.M. 2012. Faith et al. 2011. "corroboration assessment" leads to verificationism. Zootaxa 3235: 62–64. Preview (PDF)
Maddison, D.R., Schulz, K.-S. & Maddison, W.P. 2007. The Tree of Life Web Project. Pp. 19–40 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
Minelli, A. 2007. Invertebrate taxonomy and evolutionary developmental biology. Pp. 55–60 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
Mitchell, A. 2011. DNA barcoding is useful for taxonomy: a reply to Ebach. Zootaxa 2772: 67–68. Preview PDF
Rodman, J.E. 2007. Reflections on PEET, the Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy. Pp. 41–46 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
Rodríguez-Fernández, J.I. et al. 2011. Barcoding without DNA? Species identification using near infrared spectroscopy. Zootaxa 2933: 46–54. Preview
Rogers, D.C. 2012. Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method. Zootaxa 3257: 66–68. Preview (PDF)
Santos, L.M. & Faria, L.R.R. 2011. The taxonomy’s new clothes: a little more about the DNA-based taxonomy. Zootaxa 3025: 66–68. Preview PDF
Stevens, M.I., Porco, D., D’Haese, C.A. & Deharveng, L. 2011. Comment on "Taxonomy and the DNA Barcoding Enterprise" by Ebach (2011). Zootaxa 2838: 85–88. Preview PDF
Stribling, J. et al. 2012: “Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method”: a rebuttal of Rogers (2012). Zootaxa 3359: 65–68. Preview PDF [erratum in Zootaxa 3383: 14–14. Preview PDF (2012)] reference page
Wheeler, Q.D. 2007. Invertebrate systematics or spineless taxonomy? Pp. 10–18 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
Wilkins, J.S. 2011. Philosophically speaking, how many species concepts are there? Zootaxa 2765: 58–60. Preview (PDF)
Winston, J.E. 2007. Archives of a small planet: The significance of museum collections and museum-based research in invertebrate taxonomy. Pp. 47–54 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF


Baurain, D., Brinkmann, H. & Philippe, H. 2007. Lack of Resolution in the Animal Phylogeny: Closely Spaced Cladogeneses or Undetected Systematic Errors? Molecular biology and evolution 24: 6–9. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msl137
Bourlat, S.J., Nielsen, C., Economou, A.D. & Telford, M.J. 2008. Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 49: 23–31. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.07.008 PDF
DeSalle, R. & Schierwater, B. 2008. An even "newer" animal phylogeny. BioEssays 30: 1043–1047. doi: 10.1002/bies.20842 PDF
Dunn, C.W. et al. 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452: 745–749. doi: 10.1038/nature06614
Edgecombe, G.D. et al. 2011. Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions. Organisms diversity & evolution 11(2): 151–172. doi: 10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Giribet, G. et al. 2007. A modern look at the Animal Tree of Life. Pp. 61–79 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF) PDF
Glenner, H., Hansen, A.J., Sørensen, M.V., Ronquist, F., Huelsenbeck, J.P. & Willerslev, E. 2004. Bayesian inference of the metazoan phylogeny: a combined molecular and morphological approach. Current biology 14: 1644–1649. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.09.027
Halanych, K.M. 2004. The new view of animal phylogeny. Annual review of ecology, evolution, and systematics 35: 229–256. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.112202.130124 PDF PDF
Jenner, R.A. 2004. Towards a phylogeny of the Metazoa: evaluating alternative phylogenetic positions of Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, and Gnathostomulida, with a critical reappraisal of cladistic characters. Contributions to zoology 73(1–2): 3–163.
Leys, S.P. & Eerkes-Medrano, D. 2005. Gastrulation in calcareous sponges: in search of Haeckel’s Gastraea. Integrative & comparative biology 45: 342–351. doi: 10.1093/icb/45.2.342 PDF
Medina, M., Collins, A.G., Silberman, J.D. & Sogin, M.L. 2001. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA. PNAS 98: 9707–9712. doi: 10.1073/pnas.171316998 JSTOR PubMed
Nielsen, C. 2001. Animal evolution: interrelationships of the living phyla (2nd edition). Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0198506821 ISBN 9780198506829
Schierwater, B.& DeSalle, R. 2007. Can we ever identify the Urmetazoan? Integrative and comparative biology 47: 670–676. doi: 10.1093/icb/icm040
Schierwater, B. et al. 2009: Concatenated Analysis Sheds Light on Early Metazoan Evolution and Fuels a Modern “Urmetazoon” Hypothesis. PLoS Biol 7(1): e1000020. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000020
Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. 2003. Old trees, new trees: is there any progress? Zoology 106: 291–301. doi: 10.1078/0944-2006-00128
Sorensen, M.V., Funch, P., Willerslev, E., Hansen, A.J. & Olesen J. 2000. On the phylogeny of the metazoa in the light of Cycliophora and Micrognathozoa. Zoologischer anzeiger 239: 297–318.
Syed, T., Gudo, M. & Gutmann, M. 2007. The new animal phylogeny – dilemma or progress? Denisia (20): 295–312.
Telford, M.J. 2006. Animal phylogeny. Current biology 16: R981-R985. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.10.048
Zrzavý, J. 2002. Gastrotricha and metazoan phylogeny. Zoologica scripta 32: 61–81. doi: 10.1046/j.1463-6409.2003.00104.x

Zoological nomenclature/terminology

Anon. 2010. Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology Updated March 2010
Bour, R. 2010. Constant Duméril’s Zoologie Analytique was published in 1805. Bionomina 1: 56–57. Preview (PDF) PDF
Carlos, C.J. & Voisin, J.-f. 2009. A few remarks on the proposed amendment of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Zootaxa 2198: 67–68. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
Dubois, A. 2007. Nomina zoologica linnaeana. Pp. 81–106 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
Dubois, A. 2008. Authors of zoological publications and nomina are signatures, not persons. Zootaxa 1771: 63–68. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
Dubois, A. 2009. Incorporation of nomina of higher-ranked taxa into the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: the nomenclatural status of class-series zoological nomina published in a non-Latinized form. Zootaxa 2106: 1–12. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
Dubois, A. 2010. Retroactive changes should be introduced in the Code only with great care: problems related to the spellings of nomina. Zootaxa 2426: 1–42. Preview (PDF) PDF
Dubois, A. 2010. Bionomina, a forum for the discussion of nomenclatural and terminological issues in biology. Bionomina 1: 1–10. Preview (PDF) PDF
Dubois, A. 2011. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature must be drastically improved before it is too late. Bionomina 2: 1–104. Preview PDF
Dubois, A. 2012. The distinction between introduction of a new nomen and subsequent use of a previously introduced nomen in zoological nomenclature. Bionomina 5: 57–80. Preview (PDF)
Dubois, A., Minelli, A. & Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Recommendations about nomenclature for papers submitted to Zootaxa. Zootaxa 2943: 58–62. Preview PDF
Dubois, A. et al. 2013. Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems related to the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts in zoology, with brief comments on optical discs and on the situation in botany. Zootaxa 3735(1): 1–94. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3735.1.1 Reference page.
Flann, C. 2011. BioCode: third time lucky? Zootaxa 2874: 38–40. Preview (PDF)
Hedges, S.B. 2011. On the use of high-level taxonomic names. Zootaxa 2867: 67–68. Preview PDF
Hoquet, T. 2010. Why terms matter to biological theories: the term “origin” as used by Darwin. Bionomina 1: 58–60. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview (PDF) PDF
ICZN 1987: Official Lists and Indexes of Names and Works in Zoology. London: ICZN. ISBN: 0853010048
ICZN 2012. Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Zootaxa 3450: 1–7. Preview (PDF). Full paper (PDF). Reference page.
ICZN 2012. Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. ZooKeys 219: 1–10. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.219.3944 Reference page.
Kuhn, J.H. & Wahl-Jensen, V. 2010. Being obsessive-compulsive about terminology and nomenclature is not a vice, but a virtue. Bionomina 1: 11–14. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview (PDF) PDF
Minelli, A. 2013. Zoological nomenclature in the digital era. Frontiers in zoology 10: 4. doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-10-4
Nemésio, A. 2011. Nomenclatural itch versus patrolling itch: comments on O’Hara (2011). Zootaxa 2986: 63–68. Preview (PDF)
O’Hara, J.E. 2011. Cyber nomenclaturalists and the “CESA itch”. Zootaxa 2933: 57–64. Preview PDF
Sepkoski, J.J. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American paleontology 363: 1–560. [not seen]
Steyskal, G.C. 1970. On gender concord in binomina. Coleopterists bulletin 24: 57–58. JSTOR
Zhang, Z.-Q. 2012. A new era in zoological nomenclature and taxonomy: ICZN accepts e-publication and launches ZooBank. Zootaxa 3450: 8–8. Preview (PDF). Reference page.

Additional references

Owen, I.L. 2011. Parasites of animals in Papua New Guinea recorded at the National Veterinary Laboratory: a catalogue, historical review and zoogeographical affiliations. Zootaxa 3143: 1–163. Preview (PDF)
Schilthuizen, M. 2013. Something gone awry: unsolved mysteries in the evolution of asymmetric animal genitalia. Animal biology 63: 1–20. doi: 10.1163/15707563-00002398 Reference page.
Sosa-Medina, T., Vidal-Martínez, V.M. & Aguirre-Macedo, M.L. 2015. Metazoan parasites of fishes from the Celestun coastal lagoon, Yucatan, Mexico. Zootaxa 4007(4): 529–544. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4007.4.4. Preview (PDF). Reference page.


BHL bibliography
Catalogue of Life: 2017 Annual Checklist

The Linnean Collections
Animalia in the World Register of Marine Species, accessed on September 9, 2017

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Diere
Akan: Mbowa
Alemannisch: Tierer
العربية: حيوان
aragonés: Animals
arpetan: Animâl
অসমীয়া: প্রাণী
asturianu: Animal
Bahasa Indonesia: Hewan
Bahasa Melayu: Haiwan
bamanankan: Bagan
বাংলা: প্রাণী
Basa Sunda: Sato
беларуская: Жывёлы
भोजपुरी: जानवर
Boarisch: Viecher
bosanski: Životinje
brezhoneg: Loen
български: Животни
català: Animal
čeština: Živočichové
corsu: Animali
српски / srpski: Животиња
Cymraeg: Anifeiliaid
dansk: Dyr
Deutsch: Tiere
eesti: Loomad
Ελληνικά: Ζώα
English: animals
español: Animales
Esperanto: besto
euskara: Animaliak
فارسی: جانوران
føroyskt: Djór
français: Animaux
Frysk: Dier
Gaeilge: Ainmhí
Gàidhlig: Beathach
galego: Animais
한국어: 동물계(動物界)
Հայերեն: Կենդանիներ
हिन्दी: जन्तु; जानवर; जीव; पशु; प्राणी
hrvatski: Životinje
Ido: Animalo
interlingua: Animales
íslenska: Dýr
italiano: Animali
עברית: בעלי חיים
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪ್ರಾಣಿ
Kapampangan: Animal
ქართული: ცხოველები
kernowek: Enyval
Kurdî: Candar
Latina: Animalia
latviešu: Dzīvnieki
Lëtzebuergesch: Déiereräich
lietuvių: Gyvūnai
Limburgs: Diere
magyar: Állatok
македонски: Животни
Malagasy: Biby
मराठी: प्राणी
مازِرونی: جانورون
Nāhuatl: Yōlcatl
Nederlands: Dieren
日本語: 動物界
Nordfriisk: Diarten
norsk: Dyr
norsk nynorsk: Dyr
Nouormand: Animâ
occitan: Animals
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਾਨਵਰ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សត្វ
Plattdüütsch: Beester
polski: Zwierzęta
português: Animais / Metazoários
română: Animale
Runa Simi: Uywa
русский: Животные
Basa Sunda: Sato
sicilianu: Armali
Simple English: Animal
slovenčina: Živočíchy
slovenščina: Živali
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Životinje
suomi: Eläinkunta
svenska: Djur
Tagalog: hayop
தமிழ்: விலங்கு
ไทย: สัตว์
Tiếng Việt: Động vật
Tsetsêhestâhese: Hova
Türkçe: Hayvanlar
українська: Тварини
اردو: جانور
West-Vlams: Bêeste
ייִדיש: בעלי־חיים
Zazaki: Heywani
中文(繁體)‎: 動物界
中文(简体)‎: 动物界

Biology Encyclopedia

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