Hellenica World


Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Phyla (36): Acanthocephala - Annelida - Arthropoda - Brachiopoda - Bryozoa - Cephalorhyncha - Chaetognatha - Chordata - Cnidaria - Ctenophora - Cycliophora - Echinodermata - Echiura - Gastrotricha - Gnathostomulida - Hemichordata - Kamptozoa - Kinorhyncha - Loricifera - Micrognathozoa - Mollusca - Myxozoa - Nematoda - Nematomorpha - Nemertea - Onychophora - Orthonectida - Phoronida - Placozoa - Platyhelminthes - Porifera - Rhombozoa - Rotifera - Sipuncula - Tardigrada - Xenacoelomorpha
Justification for checklist:
Catalogue of Life: 2014 Annual Checklist is followed for pragmatic reasons, though the following alternative phyla deserve consideration: Dicyemida - Entoprocta - Monoblastozoa - Myzostomida - Priapulida - †Trilobozoa]

Selected references

Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011: Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3148: 1–237. open access reference page
Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2013: Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa, 3703(1): 1-82. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.1 reference page

animal biodiversity publishing

Blagoderov, V. et al. 2010: Streamlining taxonomic publication: a working example with Scratchpads and ZooKeys. ZooKeys, 50: 17-28. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.539
Penev, L. et al. 2010: Editorial. Taxonomy shifts up a gear: New publishing tools to accelerate biodiversity research. ZooKeys, 50: i-iv. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.543
Penev, L. et al. 2010: Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples. ZooKeys, 50: 1-16. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.538
Penev, L. et al. 2011: Interlinking journal and wiki publications through joint citation: Working examples from ZooKeys and Plazi on Species-ID. ZooKeys, 90: 1–12. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.90.1369
Smith, V.; Penev, L. (eds.) 2011: e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity science. ZooKeys, 150 contents
Valdecasas, A.G. 2011: An index to evaluate the quality of taxonomic publications. Zootaxa, 2925: 57–62. Preview PDF
Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011: Describing unexplored biodiversity: Zootaxa in the International Year of Biodiversity. Zootaxa, 2768: 1–4. Preview PDF
Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011: Accelerating biodiversity descriptions and transforming taxonomic publishing: the first decade of Zootaxa. Zootaxa, 2896: 1–7. Preview PDF

methodology in zoological taxonomy

Assis, L.C.S.; De Carvalho, M.R.; Wheeler, Q.D. 2011: Homoplasy: from detecting pattern to determining process in evolution, but with a secondary role for morphology? Zootaxa, 2984: 67–68. Preview
Brown, B.V. 2013: Automating the "Material examined" section of taxonomic papers to speed up species descriptions. Zootaxa, 3683(3): 297-299. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3683.3.8 reference page
Chakrabarty, P. 2010: Genetypes: a concept to help integrate molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. Zootaxa, 2632: 67-68. Preview PDF
Coleman, C.O.; Lowry, J.K.; Macfarlane, T. 2010: DELTA for Beginners. An introduction into the taxonomy software package DELTA. ZooKeys, 45: 1-75. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.45.263
Cruickshank, R.H.; Munck, L. 2011: It’s barcoding Jim, but not as we know it. Zootaxa, 2933: 55–56. Preview PDF
Ebach, M.C. 2011: Taxonomy and the DNA Barcoding Enterprise. Zootaxa, 2742: 67–68. Preview PDF
Faith, D.P. et al. 2012: Corroboration assessments and recent progress towards integrative systematics: a reply to Farris and Carpenter. Zootaxa, 3235: 65-68. Preview
Farris, J.S.; Carpenter, J.M. 2012: Faith et al.'s (2011) "corroboration assessment" leads to verificationism. Zootaxa, 3235: 62-64. Preview
Maddison, D.R.; Schulz, K.-S.; Maddison, W.P. 2007: The Tree of Life Web Project. Pp. 19-40 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
Minelli, A. 2007: Invertebrate taxonomy and evolutionary developmental biology. Pp. 55-60 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
Mitchell, A. 2011: DNA barcoding is useful for taxonomy: a reply to Ebach. Zootaxa, 2772: 67–68. Preview PDF
Rodman, J.E. 2007: Reflections on PEET, the Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy. Pp. 41-46 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
Rodríguez-Fernández, J.I. et al. 2011: Barcoding without DNA? Species identification using near infrared spectroscopy. Zootaxa, 2933: 46–54. Preview
Rogers, D.C. 2012: Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method. Zootaxa, 3257: 66–68. Preview
Santos, L.M.; Faria, L.R.R. 2011: The taxonomy’s new clothes: a little more about the DNA-based taxonomy. Zootaxa, 3025: 66–68. Preview PDF
Stevens, M.I.; Porco, D.; D’Haese, C.A.; Deharveng, L. 2011: Comment on "Taxonomy and the DNA Barcoding Enterprise" by Ebach (2011). Zootaxa, 2838: 85–88. Preview PDF
Stribling, J. et al. 2012: “Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method”: a rebuttal of Rogers (2012). Zootaxa, 3359: 65-68. Preview PDF [erratum in Zootaxa, 3383: 14-14. Preview PDF (2012)] reference page
Wheeler, Q.D. 2007: Invertebrate systematics or spineless taxonomy? Pp. 10-18 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
Wilkins, J.S. 2011: Philosophically speaking, how many species concepts are there? Zootaxa, 2765: 58–60. Preview
Winston, J.E. 2007: Archives of a small planet: The significance of museum collections and museum-based research in invertebrate taxonomy. Pp. 47-54 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF


Baurain, D.; Brinkmann, H.; Philippe, H. 2007: Lack of Resolution in the Animal Phylogeny: Closely Spaced Cladogeneses or Undetected Systematic Errors? Molecular biology and evolution, 24: 6-9. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msl137
Bourlat, S.J.; Nielsen, C.; Economou, A.D.; Telford, M.J. 2008: Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 49: 23-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.07.008 PDF
DeSalle, R.; Schierwater, B. 2008: An even "newer" animal phylogeny. BioEssays, 30: 1043-1047. doi: 10.1002/bies.20842 PDF
Dunn, C.W. et al. 2008: Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature, 452: 745-749. doi: 10.1038/nature06614
Edgecombe, G.D. et al. 2011: Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions. Organisms diversity & evolution, 11(2): 151–172. doi: 10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Giribet, G. et al. 2007: A modern look at the Animal Tree of Life. Pp. 61-79 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
Glenner, H.; Hansen, A.J.; Sørensen, M.V.; Ronquist, F.; Huelsenbeck, J.P.; Willerslev, E. 2004: Bayesian inference of the metazoan phylogeny: a combined molecular and morphological approach. Current biology, 14: 1644-1649. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.09.027
Halanych, K.M. 2004: The new view of animal phylogeny. Annual review of ecology, evolution, and systematics, 35: 229-256. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.112202.130124 PDF PDF
Jenner, R.A. 2004: Towards a phylogeny of the Metazoa: evaluating alternative phylogenetic positions of Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, and Gnathostomulida, with a critical reappraisal of cladistic characters. Contributions to zoology, 73(1-2): 3-163.
Leys, S.P.; Eerkes-Medrano, D. 2005: Gastrulation in calcareous sponges: in search of Haeckel’s Gastraea. Integrative & comparative biology, 45: 342–351. doi: 10.1093/icb/45.2.342 PDF
Medina, M.; Collins, A.G.; Silberman, J.D.; Sogin, M.L. 2001: Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA. PNAS, 98: 9707-9712. doi: 10.1073/pnas.171316998 JSTOR PubMed
Nielsen, C. 2001: Animal evolution: interrelationships of the living phyla (2nd edition). Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0198506821 ISBN 9780198506829
Schierwater, B.; DeSalle, R. 2007: Can we ever identify the Urmetazoan? Integrative and comparative biology, 47: 670-676. doi: 10.1093/icb/icm040
Schierwater, B. et al. 2009: Concatenated Analysis Sheds Light on Early Metazoan Evolution and Fuels a Modern “Urmetazoon” Hypothesis. PLoS Biol, 7(1): e1000020. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000020
Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. 2003: Old trees, new trees: is there any progress? Zoology, 106: 291-301. ISSN: 0944-2006 doi: 10.1078/0944-2006-00128
Sorensen, M.V.; Funch, P.; Willerslev, E.; Hansen, A.J.; Olesen J. 2000: On the phylogeny of the metazoa in the light of Cycliophora and Micrognathozoa. Zoologischer anzeiger, 239: 297-318. ISSN: 0044-5231
Syed, T.; Gudo, M.; Gutmann, M. 2007: The new animal phylogeny - dilemma or progress? Denisia, (20): 295-312. ISSN: 1608-8700
Telford, M.J. 2006: Animal phylogeny. Current biology, 16: R981-R985. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.10.048
Zrzavý, J. 2002: Gastrotricha and metazoan phylogeny. Zoologica scripta, 32: 61-81. doi: 10.1046/j.1463-6409.2003.00104.x

zoological nomenclature/terminology

Anon. 2010: Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology Updated March 2010
Bour, R. 2010: Constant Duméril’s Zoologie Analytique was published in 1805. Bionomina, 1: 56–57. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview PDF
Carlos, C.J.; Voisin, J.-f. 2009: A few remarks on the proposed amendment of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Zootaxa, 2198: 67-68. Abstract & excerpt
Dubois, A. 2007: Nomina zoologica linnaeana. Pp. 81-106 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt
Dubois, A. 2008: Authors of zoological publications and nomina are signatures, not persons. Zootaxa, 1771: 63-68. Abstract & excerpt
Dubois, A. 2009: Incorporation of nomina of higher-ranked taxa into the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: the nomenclatural status of class-series zoological nomina published in a non-latinized form. Zootaxa, 2106: 1-12. Abstract & excerpt
Dubois, A. 2010: Retroactive changes should be introduced in the Code only with great care: problems related to the spellings of nomina. Zootaxa, 2426: 1-42. Preview PDF
Dubois, A. 2010: Bionomina, a forum for the discussion of nomenclatural and terminological issues in biology. Bionomina, 1: 1–10. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview PDF
Dubois, A. 2011: The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature must be drastically improved before it is too late. Bionomina, 2: 1–104. Preview PDF
Dubois, A. 2012: The distinction between introduction of a new nomen and subsequent use of a previously introduced nomen in zoological nomenclature. Bionomina, 5: 57-80. Preview
Dubois, A.; Minelli, A.; Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011: Recommendations about nomenclature for papers submitted to Zootaxa. Zootaxa, 2943: 58–62. Preview PDF
Dubois, A. et al. 2013: Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems related to the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts in zoology, with brief comments on optical discs and on the situation in botany. Zootaxa, 3735(1): 1-94. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3735.1.1 reference page
Flann, C. 2011: BioCode: third time lucky? Zootaxa, 2874: 38–40. Preview
Hedges, S.B. 2011: On the use of high-level taxonomic names. Zootaxa, 2867: 67-68. Preview PDF
Hoquet, T. 2010: Why terms matter to biological theories: the term “origin” as used by Darwin. Bionomina, 1: 58–60. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview PDF
ICZN 1987: Official Lists and Indexes of Names and Works in Zoology. London: ICZN. ISBN: 0853010048
ICZN 2012: Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Zootaxa, 3450: 1-7. Preview PDF reference page
ICZN 2012: Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. ZooKeys, 219: 1-10. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.219.3944 reference page
Kuhn, J.H.; Wahl-Jensen, V. 2010: Being obsessive-compulsive about terminology and nomenclature is not a vice, but a virtue. Bionomina, 1: 11–14. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview PDF
Minelli, A. 2013: Zoological nomenclature in the digital era. Frontiers in zoology, 10: 4. doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-10-4
Nemésio, A. 2011: Nomenclatural itch versus patrolling itch: comments on O’Hara (2011). Zootaxa, 2986: 63–68. Preview
O’Hara, J.E. 2011: Cyber nomenclaturalists and the “CESA itch”. Zootaxa, 2933: 57–64. Preview PDF
Sepkoski, J.J. 2002: A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American paleontology 363: 1-560. [not seen]
Steyskal, G.C. 1970: On gender concord in binomina. Coleopterists bulletin, 24: 57-58. JSTOR
Zhang, Z.-Q. 2012: A new era in zoological nomenclature and taxonomy: ICZN accepts e-publication and launches ZooBank. Zootaxa, 3450: 8-8. Preview PDF reference page

additional references

Owen, I.L. 2011: Parasites of animals in Papua New Guinea recorded at the National Veterinary Laboratory: a catalogue, historical review and zoogeographical affiliations. Zootaxa, 3143: 1–163. Preview


BHL bibliography
Catalogue of Life: 2014 Annual Checklist
The Linnean Collections
Animalia in the World Register of Marine Species, accessed on 2011-05-27

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Diere
Alemannisch: Tierer
العربية: حيوان
aragonés: Animals
arpetan: Animâl
asturianu: Animal
Bahasa Indonesia: Hewan
Bahasa Melayu: Haiwan
bamanankan: Bagan
বাংলা: প্রাণী
Basa Sunda: Sato
беларуская: Жывёлы
Boarisch: Viecher
bosanski: Životinje
brezhoneg: Loen
български: Животни
català: Animal
čeština: Živočichové
corsu: Animali
српски / srpski: Животиња
Cymraeg: Anifeiliaid
dansk: Dyr
Deutsch: Tiere
eesti: Loomad
Ελληνικά: Ζώα
English: animals
español: Animales
Esperanto: besto
euskara: Animaliak
فارسی: جانوران
føroyskt: Djór
français: Animaux
Frysk: Dier
Gaeilge: Ainmhí
Gàidhlig: Beathach
galego: Animais
한국어: 동물계
Հայերեն: Կենդանիներ
hrvatski: Životinje
Ido: Animalo
interlingua: Animales
íslenska: Dýr
italiano: Animali
עברית: בעלי חיים
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪ್ರಾಣಿ
Kapampangan: Animal
ქართული: ცხოველები
kernowek: Enyval
Kurdî: Candar
Latina: Animalia
latviešu: Dzīvnieki
Lëtzebuergesch: Déiereräich
lietuvių: Gyvūnai
Limburgs: Diere
magyar: Állatok
македонски: Животни
मराठी: प्राणी
مازِرونی: جانورون
Nāhuatl: Yōlcatl
Nederlands: Dieren
日本語: 動物界
Nordfriisk: Diarten
norsk bokmål: Dyr
norsk nynorsk: Dyr
Nouormand: Animâ
occitan: Animals
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਾਨਵਰ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សត្វ
Plattdüütsch: Beester
polski: Zwierzęta
português: Animais / Metazoários
română: Animale
Runa Simi: Uywa
русский: Животные
sicilianu: Armali
Simple English: Animal
slovenčina: Živočíchy
slovenščina: Živali
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Životinje
suomi: Eläinkunta
svenska: Djur
தமிழ்: விலங்கு
ไทย: สัตว์
Tiếng Việt: Động vật
Tsetsêhestâhese: Hova
Türkçe: Hayvanlar
українська: Тварини
اردو: جانور
West-Vlams: Bêeste
ייִדיש: בעלי־חיים
Zazaki: Heywani
中文: 動物界

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