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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Nymphalidae
Subfamilia: Charaxinae
Tribus: Preponini
Genus: Agrias
Species: A. aedon – A. amydon – A. beatifica – A. claudina – A. excelsior – A. hewitsonius – A. narcissus – A. pericles – A. phalcidon – A. zenodorus
Name

Agrias Doubleday, 1845

Type species: Papilio claudia Schultze, 1776 by subsequent designation by Scudder, 1875.

References

Floquet, Ph., 2008. Agrias, Volume 1. Publication à compte d’auteur. 98 pp accepts the same 9 species as Spath (q.v.)
Floquet, Ph., 2010. Agrias, Volume 2. Publication à compte d’auteur. 57 pp
Floquet, P., 2010: A new form of Agrias phalcidon Hewitson, in the Maues region, Amazonas, Brazil (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Lambillionea CX 1 (Tome 1): 132–135.
Floquet, P.,2010: Les variations chez Agrias phalcidon phalcidon Hewitson, 1855,et description de la femelle de la forme floqueti Floquet, 2010, Brésil(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)'Lambillionea' CXI, 3.
Floquet, P., 2011. Les variations chez Agrias pericles Bates (1860),de la région de Maues et Itaituba au Brésil (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXI, 1.
Floquet, P., 2011. Les variations chez Agrias phalcidon ssp.fournierae (Fassl, 1921),au Brésil (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)Lambillionea CXI.
Floquet, P., 2011. Forme rouge d’Agrias amydon smalli Miller & Nicolay (1971),du Costa-Rica (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)Lambillionea CXI, 1.
Floquet, P. 2012. Les variations chez Agrias phalcidon excelsior Lathy, 1924, Brésil (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Lambillionea 112(1): 57–60. Reference page.
Floquet, P. 2012a. Les sous-espèces d'Agrias narcissus Staudinger, 1886 et leurs variations (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Lambillionea 112(2): 149–152. Reference page.
Floquet, P. 2012b. Agrias hewitsonius Bates, 1860 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Lambillionea 112(3): 218–220. Reference page.
Floquet, P. 2012c. Les sous-espèces et variations chez Agrias beatifica Hewitson, 1869 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Lambillionea 112(3): 280–286. Reference page.
Floquet, Ph., 2013. Variation chez l'Agrias phalcidon phalcidon Hewitson, 1855 f. floqueti Floquet, 2010, et description de la f. manfredi nov. Floquet,2013 Lambillionea CXIII, 1
Floquet, Ph., 2013. Forme récurrente chez les Agrias Doubleday, 1845 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXIII,1
Floquet, Ph., 2013. Decouverte et description d'unenouvelle forme d'Agrias beatifica stuarti Godman & Salvin, 1882 f. pseudohewitsonius nov.(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXIII,2
Floquet, Ph., 2013. - Formes et Variations chez les Agrias (Version Française). 72 pp.
Floquet, Ph., 2013. - Agrias, Forms and Variations (English version). 72 pp.
Hirata, M. & T. Miyagawa, 2004: A new subspecies of Agrias aedon Hewitson (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) from Costa Rica. Transactions of the Lepidopterological Society of Japan 55 (4): 256–260. Abstract and full article: [1].
Lamas, G. 2004. (ed.) Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. In Heppner, J.B. (ed.) Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Vol. 5A. Association for Tropical Lepidoptera/Scientific Publishers, Gainesville. 439p. Reference page.
Miller, L.D. & S.S. Nicolay, 1971: Two new Charaxinae from Panama and the Canal Zone (Nymphalidae). Bull. Allyn Museum 1: 1–5. Full article: [2].
Séraphin, G., 2012: Le complexe Agrias amydon dans le haut bassin amazonien (Equateur, Pérou, Brésil, Bolivie) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 117(4): 461-472. full article Reference page.
Séraphin, G. 2014. Description de deux nouvelles sous-espèces d'Agrias du Pérou (Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Charaxinae Preponi). Antenor 1(1): 107-119. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Agrigas
日本語: ミイロタテ

Agrias is a genus of Neotropical charaxine nymphalid butterflies found in South and Central America.

The German lepidopterist Hans Fruhstorfer wrote: "In this magnificent tropical genus, upon which nature seems to have showered all her abundance of most brilliant colours, and which is, therefore, justly called the 'princely race' of the Nymphalidae, we are most surprised to meet a repetition of two genera of not less abundant colours: the Callithea and Catagramma, except that the Agrias species greatly excel the latter in size and magnificent colours, and only the males of this genus bear a sexual distinction in the shape of a hair-brush on the hindwings. Some of them, like the famous A. sardanapalus, having been first discovered by Bates in the Amazon Valley, are of an absolutely charming beauty, and the contrast of its purple-red forewings beaming through a blue lustre hued over them as if in a violet purple gloss, with the brilliantly sapphire-blue hindwings, is undoubtedly one of the most magnificent sights that nature has ever produced in the whole world of butterflies."[1]

Prized by collectors, these large, showy butterflies have had hundreds of names applied to polymorphic variants.
Contents

1 Description
2 Biology
3 Habitat
4 Mimicry
5 Systematics
6 Hybrids
7 Species
8 References
9 External links

Description
Agrias narcissus narcissus MHNT dos.jpg
Agrias narcissus narcissus MHNT ventre.jpg

The species of the genus Agrias have, variously, very bright red, orange, iridescent blue and yellow colouration contrasting on the black or bluish background of their upperside wing. The underside wings are patterned. They have a robust appearance (broad thorax and short wide abdomen) allowing fast flight. The wingspan is 70–120 mm. Males of all Agrias species have prominent yellow tufts of androconial scales on the hindwings. These disperse pheromones for attracting suitable mates.
Biology

Adult Agrias live in the forest canopy, occasionally visiting the forest floor to feed on decomposing fruit. The butterflies always feed and rest with their wings closed, but if disturbed they may give a rapid flick of the wings, displaying the vivid colours of the upperside. Males establish territories and perch on tree trunks, branches, and even the ground.

Agrias larvae feed on Erythroxylum. The smooth and round eggs are laid singly on the leaves of the food plant. The larvae are pale brownish, marked with lichen-green spots, have recurved "horns" on the head capsule and a bifid tail. They feed at night and spend the day on twigs. The pupa is pale green. It has a dorsal hump, and tapers sharply toward a stout cremaster and the bifid head. It is suspended from a stem or leaf of the food plant.
Lowland forest Rio Huallaga, Peru
Habitat

Agrias are found in both lowland and montane tropical wet forests. Adults of Agrias amydon are also found in pasture habitats in the wet season but probably pass most, or all, of the long dry season in forest refugia. During the dry season, strong-flying A. amydon undoubtedly forage in open areas, only to return to sheltered retreats in response to thermal stress.
Mimicry

Agrias phalcidon is a Mullerian mimic with the Asterope (formerly Callithea) species complex.
Systematics
▼ Preponini

Palla, Noreppa, Anaeomorpha (sometimes in Anaeini)


Archaeoprepona


Agrias



Clade showing phylogenetics of Agrias.
Hybrids

Prepona × sarumani was described by Paul Smart in 1976 is considered to be a hybrid between Prepona praeneste abrupta and Agrias claudina lugens. Intergeneric hybrids are rare and this may indicate Prepona is very closely related to Agrias or that the genera should be combined.

Species

The following species are accepted by the Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera.[2]

Agrias aedon – Aegon agrias
Agrias amydon – white-spotted agrias
Agrias claudina (including A. sardanapalus) – Claudina agrias
Agrias hewitsonius
Agrias narcissus

Other authors differ, for instance in regarding A. narcissus as a subspecies of A. aedon.

References

Fruhstorfer, H. (1913). Family: Morphidae. In A. Seitz (editor), Macrolepidoptera of the World, vol. 5: 333–356. Stuttgart: Alfred Kernen.

Lamas, G. (Ed.) (2004). Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea-Papilionoidea. Gainesville, Florida: Association for Tropical Lepidoptera. ISBN 0-945417-28-4. "SA Species". Archived from the original on 2008-06-22. Retrieved 2008-06-01.

Barselou, P. (1983), The genus Agrias (Nymphalidae) , Sciences Nat, Venette. [1]
Le Moult, 1931–1933, Formes nouvelles ou peu connues d'Agrias. Novitates entomologicae
Floquet, Ph., 2008. Agrias, Volume 1. Publication à compte d’auteur. 98 pp accepts the same 9 species as Spath (q.v.)
Floquet, Ph., 2010. Agrias, Volume 2. Publication à compte d’auteur. 57 pp
Floquet, P., 2010: A new form of Agrias phalcidon Hewitson, in the Maues region, Amazonas, Brazil (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Lambillionea CX 1 (Tome 1): 132–135.
Floquet, P.,2010: Les variations chez Agrias phalcidon phalcidon Hewitson, 1855,et description de la femelle de la forme floqueti Floquet, 2010, Brésil(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)'Lambillionea' CXI, 3.
Floquet, P., 2011. Les variations chez Agrias pericles Bates (1860),de la région de Maues et Itaituba au Brésil (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXI, 1.
Floquet, P., 2012. Les variations chez Agrias phalcidon excelsior Lathy, 1924, Brésil(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)Lambillionea CXII, 1.
Floquet, P., 2011. Les variations chez Agrias phalcidon ssp.fournierae (Fassl, 1921),au Brésil (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)Lambillionea CXI.
Floquet, P., 2011. Forme rouge d’Agrias amydon smalli Miller & Nicolay (1971),du Costa-Rica (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)Lambillionea CXI, 1.
Floquet, P., 2012. Les sous-espèces d’Agrias narcissus Staudinger, 1886 et leurs variations(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)Lambillionea CXII, 2.
Floquet, Ph., 2012. Les sous-espèces et variations chez Agrias beatifica Hewitson, 1869 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXII, 3.
Floquet, Ph., 2012. Agrias hewitsonius Bates, 1860 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXII, 3
Floquet, Ph., 2013. Variation chez l'Agrias phalcidon phalcidon Hewitson, 1855 f. floqueti Floquet, 2010, et description de la f. manfredi nov. Floquet,2013 Lambillionea CXIII, 1
Floquet, Ph., 2013. Forme récurrente chez les Agrias Doubleday, 1845 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXIII,1
Floquet, Ph., 2013. Decouverte et description d'unenouvelle forme d'Agrias beatifica stuarti Godman & Salvin, 1882 f. pseudohewitsonius nov.(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXIII,2
Floquet, Ph., 2013. - Formes et Variations chez les Agrias (Version Française). 72 pp.
Floquet, Ph., 2013. - Agrias, Forms and Variations (English version). 72 pp.
Floquet, Ph., 2014. Variations chez Agrias amydon athenais Fruhstorfer,1912 et description d'une forme nouvelle auriflamma (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXIV,3,2014
Floquet, Ph., 2015. Notes sur les populations d'Agrias aedon Hewitson, 1848 du Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXV,3,2015
Floquet, Ph., 2016. Découverte et description de la forme rouge d'Agrias phalcidon excelsior Lathy, 1924, Brésil f. akai nov. Floquet, 2015 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Lambillionea CXVI,1,2016
Rebillard, P. (1961), Révision systématique des Lépidoptères Nymphalides du genre Agrias. Memoires du Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Nouvelle Serie, Serie A, Zoologie, Tome XXII, Fasicule 2.
Späth, M. (1992), Sous-espèces et formes nouvelles d'Agrias. Bulletin de la Société Sciences Nat, 75–76. [2]
Späth, M. (1999), Pt. 2. Agrias. In: E. Bauer (Ed.), Butterflies of the World. (Vol. Nymphalidae I, pp. 12 p., 20 col. plates). Keltern: Goecke & Evers. ISBN 978-3-931374-64-8 Accepts 9 species Agrias beatifica Hewitson, 1869;Agrias hewitsonius Hewitson, 1860; Agrias sahlkei Honrath, [1885]; Agrias claudina (Godart, [1824]), Agrias aedon Hewitson, 1848; Agrias narcissus Staudinger, [1885]; Agrias amydon Hewitson, 1854, Agrias phalcidon Hewitson, 1855 Agrias pericles Bates, 1860
Allen M. Young, 1981 Responses by butterflies to seasonal conditions in lowland Guanacaste province, Costa Rica Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 1981 Volume 35: 155-157 pdf[permanent dead link]
Thomas S. Ray, 1985 The host plant, Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae), of Agrias (Nymphalidae) Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 1985 Volume 39: 266-267 pdf [permanent dead link] includes photos of larvae and pupae
George T. Austin, 2009 Nymphalidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Variation and phenology of Agrias (Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 19(1): 29–34, 33 figs. pdf
Carlos Antonio Peña Bieberach, 2009 Evolutionary history of the butterfly subfamily Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Thesis Department of Zoology Stockholm University pdf
Furtado, E. 2008. Intergeneric hybridism between Prepona and Agrias (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 18(1): 5–6.pdf

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