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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Hymenopterida
Ordo: Hymenoptera
Subordo: Apocrita
Superfamilia: Apoidea

Familia: Apidae
Subfamiliae (3): Apinae - Meliponinae - Nomadinae - Xylocopinae

Overview of genera (207 + 1†)

Acanthopus – Aethammobates – Afromelecta – Agapanthinus – Aglae – Aglaomelissa – Alepidosceles – Allodape – Allodapula – Alloscirtetica – Amegilla – Ammobates – Ammobatoides – Ancyla – Ancyloscelis – Anthophora – Anthophorula – Apis – Apotrigona – Arhysoceble – Austroplebeia – Axestotrigona – Biastes – Bombus – Brachymelecta – Brachynomada – Braunsapis – Caenonomada – Caenoprosopina – Caenoprosopis – Camargoia – Canephorula – Cemolobus – Centris – Cephalotrigona – Ceratina – Chalepogenus – Chiasmognathus – Chilimalopsis – Cleptotrigona – Coelioxoides – Compsomelissa – Ctenioschelus – Ctenoplectra – Ctenoplectrina – Cubitalia – Dactylurina – Deltoptila – Diadasia – Diadasina – Doeringiella – Duckeola – Ebaiotrigona – Effractapis – Elaphropoda – Epeoloides – Epeolus – Epicharis – Epiclopus – Eremapis – Ericrocis – Eucera – Eucerinoda – Eucondylops – Eufriesea – Euglossa – Eulaema – Exaerete – Exomalopsis – Exoneura – Exoneurella – Exoneuridia – Florilegus – Friesella – Frieseomelitta – Gaesischia – Gaesochira – Geniotrigona – Geotrigona – Habrophorula – Habropoda – Halterapis – Hamatothrix – Heterotrigona – Hexepeolus – Holcopasites – Homotrigona – Hopliphora – Hypotrigona – Isepeolus – Kelita – Lanthanomelissa – Leiopodus – Lepidotrigona – Lestrimelitta – Leurotrigona – Liotrigona – Lisotrigona – Lophothygater – Lophotrigona – Macrogalea – Manuelia – Martinapis – Melanempis – Melecta – Melectoides – Meliphilopsis – Meliplebeia – Melipona – Meliponula – Melissodes – Melissoptila – Melitoma – Melitomella – Meliwillea – Mesocheira – Mesonychium – Mesoplia – Micronychapis – Mirnapis – Monoeca – Mourella – Nannotrigona – Nanorhathymus – Nasutapis – Neolarra – Neopasites – Nogueirapis – Nomada – Notolonia – Odontotrigona – Odyneropsis – Oreopasites – Osirinus – Osiris – Oxytrigona – Pachymelus – Pachysvastra – Papuatrigona – Parammobatodes – Paranomada – Paratetrapedia – Paratrigona – Paratrigonoides – Parepeolus – Pariotrigona – Partamona – Pasites – Peponapis – Platysvastra – Platytrigona – Plebeia – Plebeiella – Plebeina – Protosiris – Pseudepeolus – Ptilothrix – Ptilotrigona – Rhathymus – Rhinepeolus – Rhogepeolus – Rhopalolemma – Santiago – Scaptotrigona – Scaura – Schmiedeknechtia – Schwarziana – Schwarzula – Simanthedon – Sinomelecta – Sphecodopsis – Spinopasites – Sundatrigona – Svastra – Svastrides – Svastrina – Syntrichalonia – Tapinotaspis – Tapinotaspoides – Tarsalia – Teratognatha – Tetragona – Tetragonilla – Tetragonisca – Tetragonula – Tetralonia – Tetraloniella – Tetralonioidella – Tetrapedia – Tetrigona – Thalestria – Thygater – Thyreomelecta – Thyreus – Toromelissa – Townsendiella – Trichocerapis – Trichotrigona – Triepeolus – Trigona – Trigonisca – Trigonopedia – Triopasites – Ulugombakia – Xenoglossa – Xeromelecta – Xylocopa – Zacosmia – †Exebotrigona

[source: Catalogue of Life: 2012 Annual Checklist, except fossil genera]

Add (6): †Melikertes – †Melissites – †Mochlomelikertes – †Paramelikertes – †Roussyana – †Succinapis
Name

Apidae
References

Michener, C.D. 1944. Comparative external morphology, phylogeny, and a classification of the bees (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 82: 151–326.
Engel, M.S., Nguyen, L.T.P., Tran, N.T., Truong, T.A. & Motta, A.F.H. 2022. A new genus of minute stingless bees from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Zookeys 1089ː 53–72. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1089.78000 Open access Reference page.
Michener, C.D. 1990. Classification of the Apidae. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 54: 75-153.
Ornosa, C., Torres, F. & Rúa, P. de la 2017. Updated list of bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from the Spanish Pyrenees with notes on their decline and conservation status. Zootaxa 4237(1): 41–77. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4237.1.3. Reference page.
Potapov, G.S., Kondakov, A.V., Filippov, B.Y., Gofarov, M.Y., Kolosova, Y.S., Spitsyn, V.M., Tomilova, A.A., Zubrii, N.A. & Bolotov, I.N. 2019. Pollinators on the polar edge of the Ecumene: taxonomy, phylogeography, and ecology of bumble bees from Novaya Zemlya. Zookeys, 866: 85–115. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.866.35084 Reference page.
Roig-Alsina, A. and Michener, C.D. 1993. Studies of the phylogeny and classification of long-tongued bees (Hymenoptera:Apoidea). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 55:124-162.
Weissmann, J.A., Picanço, A., Borges, P.A.V. & Schaefer, H. 2017. Bees of the Azores: an annotated checklist (Apidae, Hymenoptera). ZooKeys 642: 63-95. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.642.10773. Reference page.

Vernacular names
català: Àpids
Deutsch: Echte Bienen
español: Ápidos
français: Abeilles vraies
magyar: Méhfélék, színméhfélék
日本語: ミツバチ科
português do Brasil: Apídeos
Tiếng Việt: Họ Ong mật

Apidae is the largest family within the superfamily Apoidea, containing at least 5700 species of bees. The family includes some of the most commonly seen bees, including bumblebees and honey bees, but also includes stingless bees (also used for honey production), carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, and a number of other less widely known groups.[1][2] Many are valuable pollinators in natural habitats and for agricultural crops.[3]

Taxonomy

In addition to its historical classification (honey bees, bumble bees, stingless bees and orchid bees), the family Apidae presently includes all the genera formerly placed in the families Anthophoridae and Ctenoplectridae.[3] Although the most visible members of Apidae are social, the vast majority of apid bees are solitary, including a number of cleptoparasitic species.[4]

The old family Apidae contained four tribes (Apinae: Apini, Euglossini and Bombinae: Bombini, Meliponini) which have been reclassified as tribes of the subfamily Apinae, along with all of the former tribes and subfamilies of Anthophoridae and the former family Ctenoplectridae, which was demoted to tribe status. The trend to move groups down in taxonomic rank has been taken further by a 2005 Brazilian classification that places all existing bee families together under the name "Apidae",[5] but it has not been widely accepted in the literature since that time.
Subfamilies
Apinae
Amegilla cingulata—a subfamily Apinae digger bee species, of Australian blue banded bees, approaching tomato flower

The subfamily Apinae contains honey bees, bumblebees, stingless bees, orchid bees, and digger bees, among others. The bees of most tribes placed in Apinae are solitary with nests that are simple burrows in the soil. However, honey bees, stingless bees, and bumblebees are eusocial or colonial. These are sometimes believed to have each developed this trait independently, and show notable differences in such characteristics as communication between workers and methods of nest construction.

Tribes include:[2]

Ancylaini[6]
Anthophorini
Apini
Bombini
Centridini
Emphorini—(Subtribe Ancyloscelidina; Subtribe Emphorina)
Ericrocidini
Eucerini
Euglossini
Exomalopsini
Melectini
Meliponini
Osirini
Protepeolini
Rhathymini
Tarsaliini[6]

Nomadinae
Subfamily Nomadinae cuckoo bee species, on flower.

The subfamily Nomadinae, or cuckoo bees, has 31 genera in 10 tribes which are all cleptoparasites in the nests of other bees.

Tribes include:[2]

Ammobatini
Ammobatoidini
Biastini
Brachynomadini
Epeolini—(Subtribe Epeolina; Subtribe Odyneropsina; Subtribe Thalestriina)
Hexepeolini
Neolarrini
Nomadini
Townsendiellini

Xylocopinae
Xylocopa violacea—a subfamily Xylocopinae carpenter bee, on flower.

The subfamily Xylocopinae, which includes carpenter bees, are mostly solitary, though they tend to be gregarious. Some tribe lineages, such as the Allodapini, contain eusocial species.

Most members of this subfamily make nests in plant stems or wood.

Tribes include:[2]

Allodapini
Ceratinini
Manueliini
Xylocopini

See also

Bee (mythology)
List of crop plants pollinated by bees

References

Danforth, Bryan N.; Cardinal, Sophie; Praz, Christophe; Almeida, Eduardo A.B.; Michez, Denis (2013). "The Impact of Molecular Data on Our Understanding of Bee Phylogeny and Evolution". Annual Review of Entomology. 58 (1): 57–78. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153633. ISSN 0066-4170. PMID 22934982.
BugGuide.Net: the Family Apidae (of bees) . accessed 6.23.2013
[Michener, Charles D. (2007) The bees of the world. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Londres.]
[O'Toole, Christopher, Raw, Anthony (1999) Bees of the world. Cassell Illustrated. ISBN 0-8160-5712-5]
Gonçalves, Rodrigo B. (2005). "Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato)". Melo, Gabriel AR, And"Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 22 (1): 153–159. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752005000100017.

Engel, M. S.; Alqarni, A. S.; Shebl, M. A. (2017). "Discovery of the bee tribe Tarsaliini in Arabia (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with the description of a new species". American Museum Novitates (3877): 1–28. doi:10.1206/3877.1. hdl:2246/6703. S2CID 89812681.

Arnett, R. H., Jr. (2000). "Ch. 25: Hymenoptera (Wasps, Ants, and Bees)". American insects (2nd ed.). CRC Press. pp. 531–614. ISBN 978-0-8493-0212-1.
Borror, D. J.; DeLong, D. M.; Triplehorn, C. A. (1976). An introduction to the study of insects (4th ed.). Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 978-0-03-088406-1.
Mitchell, T. B. (1962). Bees of the Eastern United States. Vol. 2. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Tech. Bul. No. 152.

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