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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Antliophora
Ordo: Diptera
Subordo: Brachycera
Infraordo: Muscomorpha
Sectio: Schizophora
Subsectio: Acalyptrata
Superfamilia: Tephritoidea

Familia: Tephritidae
Subfamilia: Dacinae
Tribus: Dacini
Genus: Bactrocera
Subgenera (12): B. (Afrodacus) – B. (Asiadacus) – B. (Austrodacus) – B. (Bactrocera) – B. (Calodacus) – B. (Daculus) – B. (Gymnodacus) – B. (Paratridacus) – B. (Parazeugodacus) – B. (Sinodacus) – B. (Tetradacus) – B. (Zeugodacus)


Overview of species (574)
a

B. abbreviata – B. abdoangusta – B. abdoaurantiaca – B. abdofuscata – B. abdolonginqua – B. abdomininigra – B. abdonigella – B. abdopallescens – B. aberrans – B. ablepharus – B. abnormis – B. abscondita – B. absidata – B. absoluta – B. absona – B. abundans – B. aceraglans – B. aceroglans – B. aceromata – B. aculeus – B. adamantea – B. adusta – B. aemula – B. aenigmatica – B. aeroginosa – B. aethriobasis – B. affinidorsalis – B. affinis – B. aithogaster – B. alampeta – B. albistrigata – B. allodistincta – B. allwoodi – B. alyxiae – B. amarambalensis – B. ambigua – B. amoenus – B. ampla – B. amplexa – B. amplexiseta – B. anchitrichota – B. andamanensis – B. aneuvittata – B. anfracta – B. angusticostata – B. angustifasciata – B. angustifinis – B. anomala – B. anthracina – B. antigone – B. apicalis – B. apicofuscans – B. apiconigroscutella – B. aquila – B. aquilonis – B. arecae – B. areolata – B. arisanica – B. armillata – B. ascita – B. assamensis – B. assita – B. aterrima – B. atra – B. atrabifasciata – B. atrichus – B. atrifacies – B. atrifemur – B. atriliniellata – B. atrisetosa – B. atypica – B. aurantiaca – B. aurantiventer – B. aurea – B. axanthinus –
b

B. bakeri – B. bancroftii – B. banneri – B. barringtoniae – B. batemani – B. beckerae – B. biarcuata – B. bidentata – B. bifasciata – B. biguttata – B. biguttula – B. bimaculata – B. binoyi – B. bipustulata – B. bivittata – B. bogorensis – B. brachus – B. brachycera – B. breviaculeus – B. brevipunctata – B. brevistriata – B. brunnea – B. brunneola – B. bryoniae – B. buinensis – B. bullata – B. bullifera – B. buloloensis – B. buruensis – B. buvittata –
c

B. cacuminata – B. caledoniensis – B. caliginosa – B. calophylli – B. calumniata – B. carambolae – B. carbonaria – B. caryeae – B. caudata – B. ceylanica – B. cheesmanae – B. cheni – B. chettalli – B. chonglui – B. chorista – B. cibodasae – B. cilifera – B. cinnamea – B. circamusae – B. citima – B. citroides – B. clarifemur – B. cogani – B. cognata – B. collita – B. commina – B. complicata – B. confluens – B. congener – B. connecta – B. connexa – B. consectorata – B. contermina – B. contigua – B. continua – B. coracina – B. correcta – B. costalis – B. cucumis – B. cucurbitae – B. curreyi – B. curta – B. curvifera – B. curvipennis –
d

B. dapsiles – B. daruensis – B. daula – B. decepta – B. decipiens – B. decumana – B. decurtans – B. depressa – B. diallagma – B. diaphana – B. diaphora – B. diaphoropsis – B. digressa – B. diospyri – B. discipennis – B. dispar – B. dissidens – B. distincta – B. diversa – B. dorsalis – B. dorsaloides – B. drewi – B. dubiosa – B. duplicata – B. dyscrita –
e

B. ebenea – B. ektoalangiae – B. elegantis – B. elegantula – B. emarginata – B. emittens – B. endiandrae – B. enigmatica – B. enochra – B. epicharis – B. ernesti – B. erubescentis – B. eurylomata – B. exigua – B. eximia – B. exornata – B. expandens – B. exspoliata –
f

B. facialis – B. fagraea – B. fallacis – B. fastigata – B. fergussoniensis – B. fernandoi – B. finitima – B. flava – B. flavipennis – B. flavipilosa – B. flavopectoralis – B. flavoscutellata – B. floresiae – B. fraserensis – B. frauenfeldi – B. freidbergi – B. froggatti – B. fuliginus – B. fulvicauda – B. fulvifacies – B. fulvifemur – B. fulvipes – B. fulvoabdominalis – B. furcata – B. furfurosa – B. furvescens – B. furvilineata – B. fuscalata – B. fuscans – B. fuscipennula – B. fuscitibia – B. fuscohumeralis – B. fusculata –
g

B. garciniae – B. gavisa – B. geminosimulata – B. gnetum – B. gombokensis – B. gracilis – B. grandifasciata – B. grandistylus – B. guangxiana – B. halfordiae –
h

B. hamaceki – B. hantanae – B. harrietensis – B. hastigerina – B. heppneri – B. hispidula – B. hochii – B. hoedi – B. hollingsworthi – B. holtmanni – B. honiarae – B. hsui – B. humilis – B. hyalina – B. hypomelaina –
i

B. icelus – B. impunctata – B. incisa – B. inconstans – B. indecora – B. indentus – B. indonesiae – B. infesta – B. infulata – B. invadens – B. invisitata – B. involuta – B. irvingiae – B. ishigakiensis – B. ismayi – B. isolata –
j

B. jarvisi – B. javadica – B. javanensis – B. jiannanus –
k

B. kaghanae – B. kanchanaburi – B. kandiensis – B. katoi – B. kelaena – B. kinabalu – B. kirki – B. kolombangarae – B. kraussi – B. kuniyoshii –
l

B. lacerata – B. lampabilis – B. lata – B. lateritaenia – B. laterum – B. laticaudus – B. laticosta – B. latifae – B. latifrons – B. latilineata – B. latilineola – B. latissima – B. limbifera – B. lineata – B. lipsanus – B. lombokensis – B. longicaudata – B. longicornis – B. longivittata – B. lucida – B. lunulata – B. luteola – B. luzonae –
m

B. macrovittata – B. maculata – B. maculifacies – B. maculifemur – B. magnicauda – B. makilingensis – B. malaysiensis – B. manskii – B. matsumurai – B. mayi – B. mcgregori – B. megaspilus – B. melanogaster – B. melanopsis – B. melanoscutata – B. melanothoracica – B. melanotus – B. melas – B. melastomatos – B. memnonia – B. menanus – B. mendosa – B. merapiensis – B. mesomelas – B. mesonotaitha – B. mesonotochra – B. mimulus – B. minax – B. minima – B. miniscula – B. minuscula – B. minuta – B. modica – B. moluccensis – B. montana – B. montyana – B. morobiensis – B. morula – B. mucronis – B. muiri – B. mulyonoi – B. munda – B. munroi – B. murrayi – B. musae – B. mutabilis –
n

B. nadana – B. naucleae – B. neoarecae – B. neocheesmanae – B. neocognata – B. neocongnata – B. neoelegantula – B. neohumeralis – B. neonigrita – B. neonigrotibialis – B. neopagdeni – B. neopallescentis – B. neopropinqua – B. neotigrina – B. neoxanthodes – B. nesiotes – B. nigella – B. nigra – B. nigrescens – B. nigrescentis – B. nigricula – B. nigrifacies – B. nigrita – B. nigrivenata – B. nigrofemoralis – B. nigroscutata – B. nigrotibialis – B. nigrovittata – B. niogreta – B. notatagena –
o

B. obfuscata – B. oblineata – B. obliqua – B. obliquivenosa – B. obscura – B. obscurata – B. obtrullata – B. occipitalis – B. ochracea – B. ochromarginis – B. ochrosiae – B. okunii – B. oleae – B. opiliae – B. osbeckiae –
p

B. pacificae – B. pagdeni – B. pallescentis – B. pallida – B. papayae – B. parabarringtoniae – B. paradiospyri – B. parafrauenfeldi – B. parafroggatti – B. paramusae – B. paraosbeckiae – B. paratappana – B. paratra – B. paraverbascifoliae – B. paraxanthodes – B. parvifoliacea – B. passiflorae – B. pauleiensis – B. paulula – B. pectoralis – B. pedestris – B. pendleburyi – B. penecognata – B. penecorrecta – B. penefurva – B. peneobscura – B. peninsularis – B. pepisalae – B. perfusca – B. perigrapha – B. perkinsi – B. pernigra – B. perplexa – B. perpusilla – B. persignata – B. personata – B. peterseni – B. petila – B. phaea – B. phaleriae – B. philippinensis – B. picea – B. pisinna – B. platamus – B. popondettiensis – B. profunda – B. prolixa – B. propedistincta – B. propinqua – B. pseudocurcurbitae – B. pseudodistincta – B. pseudoscutellata – B. pseudoversicolor – B. psidii – B. pubescens – B. pulchra – B. pura – B. pusilla – B. pyrifoliae –
q

B. qionganus – B. quadrata – B. quadrisetosa – B. quasienochra – B. quasipropinqua – B. quasisilvicola – B. quaterna –
r

B. raiensis – B. reclinata – B. recurrens – B. redunca – B. reflexa – B. repanda – B. resima – B. retrorsa – B. rhabdota – B. ritsemae – B. robertsi – B. robiginosa – B. romigae – B. rubella – B. rubigina – B. rufescens – B. rufofuscula – B. rufula – B. russeola – B. rutila –
s

B. salamander – B. samoae – B. sandaracina – B. satanellus – B. scutellaria – B. scutellaris – B. scutellata – B. scutellina – B. seguyi – B. selenophora – B. sembaliensis – B. semifemoralis – B. sepikae – B. setinervis – B. signatifera – B. silvatica – B. silvicola – B. simulata – B. singularis – B. speewahensis – B. splendida – B. stenoma – B. strigata – B. strigifinis – B. sulawesiae – B. sumatrana – B. sumbawaensis – B. sumbensis – B. surrufula – B. synnephes – B. syzygii –
t

B. tapervitta – B. tappanus – B. tau – B. tenuifascia – B. tenuifinis – B. tenuivittata – B. terminaliae – B. terminifera – B. tetrachaeta – B. thailandica – B. thistletoni – B. tillyardi – B. timorensis – B. tinomiscii – B. torresiae – B. tortuosa – B. toxopeusi – B. transtillum – B. transversa – B. triangularis – B. trichota – B. trifaria – B. trifasciata – B. trilineata – B. trilineola – B. trimaculata – B. trivialis – B. tryoni – B. tsatsiai – B. tsuneonis – B. tuberculata – B. turneri –
u

B. ubiquita – B. umbrosa – B. unichromata – B. unifasciata – B. unilateralis – B. unilineata – B. unimacula – B. unipunctata – B. unirufa – B. unistriata – B. unitaeniola – B. univittata – B. urens – B. usitata – B. ustulata –
v

B. vargasi – B. vargus – B. varipes – B. venefica – B. verbascifoliae – B. versicolor – B. vinnula – B. visenda – B. vishnu – B. vulgaris – B. vultus –
w

B. warisensis – B. watersi – B. wuzhishana –
x

B. xanthodes –
y

B. yercaudiae – B. yilanensis – B. yorkensis – B. yoshimotoi –
z

B. zahadi – B. zonata

[source: Catalogue of Life: 2012 Annual Checklist, plus (1) B. paradiospyri
]
Name

Bactrocera Macquart, 1835

References

Macquart, P.-J.-M. 1835. Historie naturelle des Insectes. Diptères. Tome deuxième, Diptera 2. 703 pp., 12 pls. Collection des suites à Buffon. Paris. BHL Reference page.
David, K.J., Ramani, S., Whitmore, D. & Ranganath, H.R. 2016. Two new species and a new record of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae: Dacini) from India. Zootaxa 4103(1): 25–34. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4103.1.2 Reference page.
David, K.J., Hancock, D.L., Singh, S.K., Ramani, S., Behere, G.T. & Salini, S. 2017. New species, new records and updated subgeneric key of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae: Dacini) from India. Zootaxa 4272(3): 386–400. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4272.3.4. Reference page.
Doorenweerd, C., Ekayanti, A. & Rubinoff, D. 2020. The Dacini fruit fly fauna of Sulawesi fits Lydekker’s line but also supports Wallacea as a biogeographic region (Diptera, Tephritidae). ZooKeys, 973: 103–122. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.973.55327 Open access Reference page.
Hancock, D.L. 2015. New subgenus for six Indo-Australian species of Bactrocera macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) and subgeneric transfer of four other species. Australian entomologist 42(1): 39–44. Abstract and full article (PDF) on informit Reference page.
Hancock, D.L. & Drew, R.A.I. 2015. A review of the Indo-Australian subgenus Parazeugodacus Shiraki of 'Bactrocera' Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). Australian entomologist 42(2): 91–104. Abstract and full article (PDF) on informit Reference page.
Leblanc, L., Tsatsia, F. & Doorenweerd, C. 2021. Novel lures and COI sequences reveal cryptic new species of Bactrocera fruit flies in the Solomon Islands (Diptera, Tephritidae, Dacini). Zooeys 1057 49–103. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1057.68375 Open access Reference page.
Leblanc, L., Doorenweerd, C., San Jose, M., Pham, H.T. & Rubinoff, D. 2018. Descriptions of four new species of Bactrocera and new country records highlight the high biodiversity of fruit flies in Vietnam (Diptera, Tephritidae, Dacinae). Zookeys, 797: 87–115. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.797.29138 Reference page.
Schutze, M.K. et al. 2014: One and the same: integrative taxonomic evidence that Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the same species as the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. Systematic entomology, DOI: 10.1111/syen.12114 Reference page.
Schutze, M.K. et al. 2014: Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data. Systematic entomology, DOI: 10.1111/syen.12113 Reference page.
Zhou, L.-b. et al. 2013: Description of a new species and record of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera,Tephritidae) from China. Zootaxa 3647(1): 194–200. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3647.1.10 Reference page.
Zhang, N.-N.; Chen, J.-H. 2012: A new species of the genus Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae) from China. Acta zootaxonomica sinica 37(1): 206-208. Abstract Reference page.
Zhang, B.; Liu, Y.-H.; Wu, W.-X.; Wang, Z.-L. 2010: Molecular Phylogeny of Bactrocera Species (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini) Inferred from Mitochondrial Sequences of 16s rDNA and CO1 Sequences. Florida entomologist 93(3): 369-377. Full article Reference page.


Additional references

Aketarawong, N., Isasawin, S., Sojikul, P. & Thanaphum, S. 2015. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data. In: De Meyer, M., Clarke, A.R., Vera, M.T. & Hendrichs, J. (Eds) Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Enhance SIT Application and Facilitate International Trade. ZooKeys 540: 239–272. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.540.10058 Full article Reference page.

Bactrocera is a large genus of tephritid fruit flies, with close to 500 species currently described and accepted.[1]

Name

The genus name is derived from Ancient Greek bakter "rod" and kera "horn".
Bactrocera sp. flies on an Anthurium inflorescence smelling of methyl eugenol
Systematics

Prior to the 1990s, almost all Dacini species were described in the genera Dacus or Strumeta. Bactrocera became the main genus for the tribe after Bactrocera and Dacus were split, but Bactrocera was further divided into Zeugodacus and Bactrocera in 2015.[2] The subgeneric treatments have only partly adopted this latest change, but are indicated here to reflect the most modern - DNA based - insights.[3][4]

Many subgenera are defined within this genus:[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Afrodacus
Aglaodacus
Apodacus
Asiadacus
Austrodacus
Bactrocera
Bulladacus
Calodacus
Daculus
Diplodacus
Gymnodacus
Hemigymnodacus
Heminotodacus
Hemiparatridacus
Hemisurstylus
Hemizeugodacus
Javadacus
Melanodacus
Neozeugodacus
Nesodacus
Niuginidacus
Notodacus
Papuodacus
Paradacus
Paratridacus
Parazeugodacus
Perkinsidacus
Queenslandacus
Semicallantra
Sinodacus
Tetradacus
Trypetidacus

See also

List of Bactrocera species

References

Doorenweerd, Camiel; Leblanc, Luc; Norrbom, Allen L.; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel (2018). "A global checklist of the 932 fruit fly species in the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae)". ZooKeys (730): 19–56. doi:10.3897/zookeys.730.21786. PMC 5799784. PMID 29416395.
De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Mwatawala, Maulid; Quilici, Serge; Vayssieres, Jean-François; Virgilio, Massimiliano (2015). "A review of the current knowledge on Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Africa, with a list of species included in Zeugodacus". ZooKeys (540): 539–557. doi:10.3897/zookeys.540.9672. PMC 4714087. PMID 26798277.
San Jose, Michael; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Leblanc, Luc; Barr, Norman; Geib, Scott; Rubinoff, Daniel (2018). "Incongruence between molecules and morphology: A seven-gene phylogeny of Dacini fruit flies paves the way for reclassification (Diptera: Tephritidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 121: 139–149. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.12.001. PMID 29224785.
Dupuis, Julian R.; Bremer, Forest T.; Kauwe, Angela; San Jose, Michael; Leblanc, Luc; Rubinoff, Daniel; Geib, Scott M. (2018). "HiMAP: Robust phylogenomics from highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing". Molecular Ecology Resources. 18 (5): 1000–1019. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.12783. PMID 29633537.
Doorenweerd, Camiel; Leblanc, Luc; Norrbom, Allen L.; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel (2018). "A global checklist of the 932 fruit fly species in the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae)". ZooKeys (730): 19–56. doi:10.3897/zookeys.730.21786. PMC 5799784. PMID 29416395.
Hancock DL, Drew RAI (2018) A review of the subgenera Apodacus Perkins, Hemizeugodacus Hardy, Neozeugodacus May, Stat. Rev., Semicallantra Drew and Tetradacus Miyake of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). Australian Entomologist 45: 105–132.
Drew RAI, Hancock DL (2016) A review of the subgenus Bulladacus Drew & Hancock of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), with description of two new species from Papua New Guinea. Australian Entomologist 43: 189–210.
Hancock DL, Drew RAI (2015) A review of the Indo-Australasian subgenus Parazeugodacus Shiraki of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Daciniae). Australian Entomologist 42: 91–104.
Hancock DL, Drew RAI (2017) A review of the pacific islands subgenus Notodacus Perkins of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). Australian Entomologist 44: 113–120.

Hancock DL, Drew RAI (2019) Further notes on subgenus Tetradacus Miyake of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), with a revised key to species. Australian Entomologist 46: 43–46.

Further reading
Drew, R.A.I.; Raghu, S. (2002). "The fruit fly fauna (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the rainforest habitat of the Western Ghats, India" (PDF). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 50 (2): 327–352. (with key to Indian Bactrocera species) — (description of new species B. amarambalensis, B. apiconigroscutella, B. neoarecae, B. neonigrotibialis, B. paraosbeckiae, B. paraverbascifoliae, B. penecorrecta, B. pseudoversicolor, B. yercaudiae and B. binoyi)
Courtice, A.C. (2006). Of Peaches and Maggots, The Story of Queensland Fruit Fly. Hillside Books. ISBN 0958823901.

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