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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Sternorrhyncha
Superfamilia: Coccoidea
Familia: Carayonemidae
Genera: Baloghicoccus - Carayonema - Foldicoccus - Mahunkacoccus

Carayonemidae Richard, 1986. Type genus: Carayonema Richard, 1986

Richard, C. 1986: Carayonemidae famille nouvelle Carayonema orousseti, n. gen., n. sp., de Guyane française (Homoptera, Coccoidea). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 22: 268–273.

Carayonemidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as carayonemids. They typically live among mosses and leaf litter which is unusual for scale insects. Members of this family come from Neotropical areas of South and Central America.[2]
Life cycle

Very little is known about this family, but in one species, the female scale has four instars.[2]

There are four genera, each with a single known species:

Baloghicoccus costaricaensis
Carayonema orousseti
Foldicoccus monikae
Mahunkacoccus mexicoensis

Foldicoccus monikae is flattened and leaf-shaped and the adult has six legs and a pair of antennae.[3]

Richard, C. (1986). "Carayonemidae famille nouvelle Carayonema orousseti, n. gen., n. sp. de Guyane française (Homoptera, Coccoidea)" [Carayonemidae new family Carayonema orousseti, n. gen., n. sp., from French Guiana (Homoptera, Coccoidea)]. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (in French). 22 (2): 268–273.
UDSA Agricultural Research Service
Kozár, F. & Z. Konczné Benedicty (2000). "Carayonemidae of the Neotropical Region with the descriptions of new genera and species (Homoptera: Coccoidea)". Folia Entomologica Hungarica. 61: 71–82.

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Biology Encyclopedia

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