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Coccinella septempunctata,

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Cucujiformia
Superfamilia: Coccinelloidea

Familia: Coccinellidae
Subfamilia: Coccinellinae
Tribus: Coccinellini
Genus: Coccinella
Subgenus: Coccinella (Coccinella)
Species: Coccinella septempunctata
Subspecies: C. s. brucki – C. s. septempunctata
Name

Coccinella (Coccinella) septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 365. Reference page.

Additional references

Ali, M., Ahmed, K., Ali, S., Raza, G., Hussain, I., Nafees, M.A. & Anjum, S.I. 2018. An annotated checklist of Coccinellidae with four new records from Pakistan (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Zookeys 803: 93–120. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.803.22543 Reference page.

Links

Coccinella septempunctata Taxon details on Fauna Europaea
ZooBank: act:D952E257-4599-4E7C-B335-8FFF341C2EC2
Ladybird Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758 (Coccinellidae) - atlas of ladybirds of Russia
Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758 – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

Vernacular names
català: Marieta de set punts
čeština: Slunéčko sedmitečné
Deutsch: Siebenpunkt-Marienkäfer, Siebenpunkt
English: Seven-spot ladybird
español: Mariquita
eesti: Seitsetäpp-lepatriinu
suomi: Seitsenpistepirkko
français: Coccinelle, bête à Bon Dieu
Gaeilge: Bóín Dé sheachtbhallach
עברית: מושית השבע, פרת משה רבנו
hornjoserbsce: Bože słónčko
magyar: Hétpettyes katicabogár
italiano: Coccinella dai sette punti
日本語: ナナホシテントウ
한국어: 칠성무당벌레
lietuvių: Septyntaškė boružė
Malti: Nannakola tas-seba' tikek
Nederlands: Zevenstippelig lieveheersbeestje
norsk nynorsk: Sjuprikka marihøne
norsk: Sjuprikket marihøne
polski: Biedronka siedmiokropka
português do Brasil: Joaninha
română: Buburuză
русский: Семиточечная коровка, божья коровка
slovenčina: Lienka sedembodková
српски / srpski: Велика европска бубамара
svenska: Sjuprickig nyckelpiga
удмурт: Зоркибы, Зорпапа, Зоркакы
Tiếng Việt: Coccinella septempunctata
West-Vlams: Emelbêestje
中文: 七星瓢虫

Coccinella septempunctata

Coccinella septempunctata, the seven-spot ladybird (or, in North America, seven-spotted ladybug or "C-7"[1]), is the most common ladybird in Europe. Its elytra are of a red colour, but punctuated with three black spots each, with one further spot being spread over the junction of the two, making a total of seven spots, from which the species derives both its common and scientific names (from the Latin septem = "seven" and punctus = "spot").

Biology
A larva of C. septempunctata
In addition to insect prey, seven-spot lady-birds consume pollen and nectar
C. septempunctata mating

C. septempunctata has a broad ecological range, generally living where there are aphids for it to eat.[2] and including, amongst other biotopes, meadows, fields, Pontic–Caspian steppe, parkland, gardens, Western European broadleaf forests and mixed forests. Both the adults and the larvae are voracious predators of aphids, and because of this, C. septempunctata has been repeatedly introduced to North America as a biological control agent to reduce aphid numbers, and is now established in North America. It has been designated the official state insect of five different states (Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Ohio, and Tennessee). Although C. septempunctata is mainly aphidophagous it also feeds on Thysanoptera, Aleyrodidae, on the larvae of Psyllidae and Cicadellidae, and on eggs and larvae of some beetles and butterflies.[3] There are one or two generations per year. Adults overwinter in ground litter in parks, gardens and forest edges and under tree bark and rocks.

In the United Kingdom, there are fears that the seven-spot ladybird is being outcompeted for food by the harlequin ladybird.[4] Conversely, in North America, this species has outcompeted many native species, including other Coccinella. Massive swarms of C. septempunctata took place in the drought summer of 1976 in the UK.[5] The species has undergone significant declines on the island of Malta, yet it is unclear whether this decline has occurred at the same rate elsewhere.[2]
Anatomy and physiology

An adult seven-spot ladybird may reach a body length of 7.6–12.7 mm (0.3–0.5 in). Their distinctive spots and attractive colours apparently make them unappealing to predators. The species can secrete a fluid from joints in their legs which gives them a foul taste. A threatened ladybird may both play dead and secrete the unappetising substance to protect itself.[6] The seven-spot ladybird synthesizes the toxic alkaloids, N-oxide coccinelline and its free base precoccinelline; depending on sex and diet, the spot size and coloration can provide some indication of how toxic the individual insect is to potential predators.[7]
Distribution

It can be found in Europe, North Africa, Australia, Cyprus, European Russia, the Caucasus, Siberia, the Russian Far East, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, the Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, Western Asia, Middle East, Afghanistan, Mongolia, China, North and South Korea, Pakistan, Nepal, North India, Japan, Sri Lanka and southeast Asia. It can also be found in North America (the species was introduced to the United States) and tropical Africa.[8]

The first record of successful establishment (after numerous failed attempts to introduce the species) in the United States was in 1973. It has since spread by natural dispersion to New York and Connecticut and to Oklahoma, Georgia and Delaware by recolonization.

References

"Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus,1758:365). Seven-spotted lady beetle; Seven-spotted ladybug". Discover Life. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
Schembri, Patrick J.; Baldacchino, Alfred E. (2011). Ilma, Blat u Hajja: Is-Sisien tal-Ambjent Naturali Malti (in Maltese). pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-99909-44-48-8.
Savoiskaya, G.I., Coccinellid Larvae (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) of the Fauna of the USSR (Nauka, Leningrad Branch, Leningrad, 1983) (Keys to the Fauna of the USSR, Published by the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, No. 137) [in Russian].
Ben Quinn (November 7, 2006). "Home-grown ladybirds put to flight by alien invasion". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
Parkinson, Justin (5 March 2016). "Could the ladybird plague of 1976 happen again?". BBC News Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016.
"Ladybugs". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
J. Blount; H. Rowland; F. Drijfhout; J. Endler; R. Inger; J. Sloggett; G. Hurst; D. Hodgson; M. Speed (2012). "How the ladybird got its spots: effects of resource limitation on the honesty of aposematic signals". Functional Ecology. 26 (2): 1–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2012.01961.x.
N. B. Nikitsky and А. S. Ukrainsky, 2016 The Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) of Moscow Province ISSN 0013-8738. Entomological Review, 2016, Vol. 96, No. 6, pp. 710–735 ISSN 0013-8738 online pdf

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