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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Hesperiidae
Subfamilia: Coeliadinae
Genera (9): Allora – Badamia – Bibasis – Burara – Choaspes – Coeliades – Hasora – Pyrrhochalcia – Tekliades
Name

Coeliadinae Evans, 1937; 1949:1.
Synonymy

Ismeninae, Evans, 1926: 49.

References
Primary references

Chiba, H. 2009. A revision of the subfamily Coeliadinae (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History, Series A 7: 1—102. PDF Reference page. 
Evans, W.H. 1937. A Catalogue of the African Hesperiidae: indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History) 1–212. Reference page. 
Evans, W.H. 1949. A catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia and Australia in the British Museum (Natural History). xix+502pp., 53 pls. BMNH, London. Reference page. 

Additional references

Butterfly Net International, Higher Classification of Hesperiidae
Ackery, P.R., de Jong, R. & Vane-Wright, R.I. 1999. The Butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea. in Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4(35): 263–300 (ed. N.P. Kristensen). Berlin: de Gruyter. Reference page. 
Brues, C. & Melander, A., 1932. Classification of Insects. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 73: 672pp., 1121 figs. BHL. Reference page. 
Cock, M.J.W., 2010. Observations on the biology of Afro–tropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) principally from Kenya. Part 1. Introduction and Coeliadinae. Zootaxa 2547: 1–63. Preview Reference page. 
Li, W., Cong. Q., Shen, J.H., Zhang, J., Hallwachs, W., Janzen, D.H. & Grishin, N.V. 2019. Genomes of skipper butterflies reveal extensive convergence of wing patterns. PNAS 116(13): 6232–6237. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821304116. Text. SI Appendix. Reference page. 
Tennent, W.J., 2001. Twenty new butterflies from the Solomon Islands (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae; Lycaenidae; Nymphalinae; Satyrinae; Danainae). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 14: 1-27. Reference page. 
Toussaint, E.F.A., Breinholt, J.W., Earl, C., Warren, A.D., Brower, A.V.Z., Yago, M., Dexter, K.M., Espeland, M., Pierce, N.E., Lohman, D.J. & Kawahara, A.Y. 2018. Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 101. DOI: 10.1186/s12862-018-1216-z Reference page. 
Toussaint, Chiba, Yago, Dexter, Warren, Storer, Lohman & Kawahara, 2020. Phylogenomics and historical biogeography of Afrotropical awl and policeman skippers. Systematic Entomology 46(1): 172-185. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12455 Paywall Reference page. 
Vane-Wright, R.I. & de Jong, R. 2003. The butterflies of Sulawesi: annotated checklist for a critical island fauna. Zoologische Verhandelingen 343: 3–267, figs 1–14, pls 1–16. Online. Reference page. 
Warren, A.D., Ogawa, J.R. & Brower, A.V.Z. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24(5): 642–676. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00218.x PDF Reference page. 
Warren, A.D., Ogawa, J.R. & Brower, A.V.Z. 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic entomology 34(3): 467–523. Reference page. 
Zhang, J., Cong. Q., Shen, J.H., Brockmann, E. & Grishin, N.V. 2019. Three new subfamilies of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). ZooKeys 861: 91–105. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.861.34686 Reference page. 

Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Coeliadinae on Wikimedia Commons.
Vernacular names
日本語: アオバセセリ亜科

Coeliadinae is a subfamily of the skipper butterfly family (Hesperiidae). With about 150 described species, this is one of several smallish skipper butterfly subfamilies. It was first proposed by William Frederick Evans in 1937.[1]

The subfamily is restricted to the Old World tropics. It comprises the most basal living lineage of skippers. In Coeliadinae the second segment of the palpi is erect and densely scaled, and the third segment is perpendicular to it, long, slender and without scales.[1]

Genera

There has only been limited phylogenetic study of this subfamily, and several issues still need to be resolved. For example, the genus Burara is here included in Bibasis, because they are both not monophyletic if their traditional delimitation is maintained. However, they may well consist of two different lineages, but where to draw the line between them and what name to use for the second genus all remain to be determined.[1]

In the provisional phylogenetic sequence, the genera of Coeliadinae are:[1]

Allora
Pyrrhiades
Pyrrhochalcia – African giant skipper
Badamia
Bibasis – awlets (including Burara)
Hasora – awls
Choaspes
Coeliades – policemen

Footnotes

Brower & Warren (2009)

References

Brower, Andrew V.Z. & Warren, Andrew (2009): Tree of Life Web Project – Coeliadinae. Version of 2009-JUN-11. Retrieved 2009-DEC-24.

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