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Crioceris asparagi

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Cucujiformia
Cladus: Phytophaga
Superfamilia: Chrysomeloidea

Familia: Chrysomelidae
Subfamilia: Criocerinae
Tribus: Criocerini
Genus: Crioceris
Species: Crioceris asparagi
Name

Crioceris asparagi (Linnaeus, 1758)

Placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology by Opinion 908.
Synonymy

Chrysomela asparagi Linnaeus, 1758: 376 (original combination)
Attelabus asparagi: Scopoli, 1763: 36
Chrysomela campestris Linnaeus, 1767: 602
Crioceris asparagi: Fabricius, 1775: 121
Lema pupillata Ahrens, 1812: 30
Lema maculipes Krynicki, 1834: 171
Crioceris asparagi var. linnaei Pic, 1895: 88
Crioceris asparagi var. anticeconjuncta Pic, 1900: 65 [as "anticeconjunctus"]
Crioceris asparagi var. apiceconjuncta Pic, 1900: 65 [as "apiceconjunctus"]
Crioceris asparagi var. impupillata Pic, 1900: 65
Crioceris asparagi var. incrucifera Pic, 1900: 65 [as "incrucifer"]
Crioceris asparagi f. cruciata Schuster, 1905: 213
Crioceris asparagi f. normalis Schuster, 1905: 213
Crioceris asparagi f. quadripunctata Schuster, 1905: 213
Crioceris asparagi f. trifasciata Schuster, 1905: 213
Crioceris asparagi var. moguntiaca Schuster, 1906: 152
Crioceris asparagi var. obliterata Pic, 1906a: 96 [junior homonym]
Crioceris asparagi var. heydeni Pic, 1906b: 123
Crioceris asparagi var. schusteri Heyden, 1906: 124
Crioceris asparagi var. pici Heyden, 1906: 125
Crioceris macilenta var. sexsignata Heyden, 1906: 126
Crioceris asparagi ab. brancsiki Laczó, 1912: 5 [unavailable name, described as abberation]
Crioceris asparagi var. fauconneti Pic, 1912: 50
Crioceris asparagi var. multiplicata Pic, 1912: 50
Lema crucifer var. octomaculata Tunkl, 1929: 164 [junior homonym]
Lema crucifer var. sexmaculata Tunkl, 1929: 163 [junior homonym]
Lema asparagi var. tau Tunkl, 1929: 163
Crioceris asparagi ab. malleti Pic, 1934: 30 [unavailable name, described as aberration]
Crioceris asparagi ab. paganetti Pic, 1934: 30 [unavailable name, described as aberration]
Crioceris asparagi turcestanica L. N. Medvedev, 1955: 1177
Crioceris asparagi ab. quadristigma van der Wiel, 1956: 19 [unavailable name, described as abberation]
Crioceris asparagi ab. dingleri Báguena, 1958: 22 [unavailable name, described as abberation]
Crioceris asparagi ab. tetrastigma Báguena, 1958: 22 [unavailable name, described as abberation]
Crioceris asparagi ab. verdcourti Báguena, 1958: 22 [unavailable name, described as abberation]

References
Primary references

Ahrens, A. 1812. Beiträge zur Kenntniss deutscher Käfer. Neue Schriften der naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Halle 2: 1–40. HathiTrust.
Baguena, L. 1958. Observaciones sobre algunos Chrysomelidae. Eos 34: 9–24. DOI: 10261/155352 Open access.
Fabricius, J.C. 1775. Systema entomologiae, sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus. Libraria Kortii, Flensburgi et Lipsiae. xvi+ 832 pp. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.36510. BHL. Reference page.
Heyden, L. von. 1906. Die Varietäten der Crioceris asparagi L. und macilenta Weise (Coleopt.). Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 25: 123–126. BHL.
ICZN 1970. Opinion 908 Crioceris Müller, 1764 and Lema Fabricius, 1798 (Insecta. Coleoptera): proposed designation of type-species under the plenary powers. The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 27(1): 12–13. BHL. Reference page.
Krynicki, J. 1834. Addenda et Nonnula Synonyma Rossiae meridionalis Coleopterorum. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 7: 166–173. BHL.
Laczó, J. 1912. Új bogarak Trencsén-vármegyéből. Rovartani Lapok 19: 3–5. BHL.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 376. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1767. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio duodecima, reformata. Tomus 1 (Regnum Animale), Pars 2: 533–1327. Holmiæ [Stockholm]. Impensis Direct Laurentii Salvii. Biblioteca Digital BHL Reference page.
Medvedev, L.N. 1955. [Chrysomelid beetles of Middle Asia]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 34(5): 1177–1178. (in Russian) [not seen]
Pic, M. 1895. A propos de variétés. L'Échange, Revue Linnéenne 11(128): 87–89. BHL Reference page.
Pic, M. 1900. Notes descriptives et biologiques. L'Échange, Revue Linnéenne 16(189): 65–66. BHL.
Pic, M. 1906. Notes entomologiques diverses. L'Échange, Revue Linnéenne 22: 96. BHL.
Pic, M. 1906. Sur Crioceris asparagi L. et ses variétés (Col.). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 1906: 119–123. PDF.
Pic, M. 1912. Descriptions ou diagnoses et notes diverses. L'Échange, Revue Linnéenne 28: 49–51. BHL
Schuster, W. 1905. Die typischen stehenden Formen von Crioceris asparagi L. (Spargelhähnchen) im Mainzer Becken. Der Zoologische Garten 46: 211–214. BHL.
Schuster, W. 1906. Crioceris asparagi var. Linnei, anticeconjuncta, schusteri, impupillata, apiceconjuncta, quadripunctata, cruciata, (incrucifer, pupillata) und moguntiaca im Mainzer Becken. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 59: 145–152. BHL.
Scopoli, J.A. 1763. Entomologia Carniolica exhibens insecta Carnioliae indigena et distributa in ordines, genera, species, varietates: methodo Linnaeana (1763). pp. 1–35, 1–420. Trattner, Vindobonae [Vienna]. BHL Reference page.
Tunkl, F. von 1929. Vier neue Variationen von Lema (Crioceris) asparagi L. (Col.). Entomologischer Anzeiger 9: 163–164. PDF.

Additional references

Bezděk, J. & Schmitt, M. 2017. Subfamily Criocerinae in Löbl, I. & Smetana, A. (eds.) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera vol. 6, Corrigenda et Addenda. Entomologische Blätter und Coleoptera 113(2): 113–135. ResearchGate Open access. Reference page.
Riley, E.G., Clark, S.M. & Seeno, T.N. 2003. Catalog of the leaf beetles of America North of Mexico (Coleoptera: Megalopididae, Orsodacnidae and Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication No. 1. Sacramento, CA. 290 pp. ISBN 978-0-9726087-1-8. PDF. Reference page.
Schmitt, M. 2010. Subfamily Criocerinae Latreille, 1804. Pp. 359–368. In: Löbl, I. & Smetana, A. (eds.) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Volume 6. Chrysomeloidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark. 924 pp. ISBN 978-87-88757-84-2. Google Books.

Links

Crioceris asparagi Taxon details on Fauna Europaea
ZooBank: act:F2508ED7-5B7E-48CA-B706-ED0E2631FE6C
European Chrysomelidae
Crioceris asparagi – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

Vernacular names
čeština: Chřestovníček obecný
dansk: Gulplettet Aspargesbille
Deutsch: Gemeines Spargelhähnchen
English: Common asparagus beetle
français: Criocère de l'asperge
Nederlands: Aspergehaantje
norsk: Aspargesbille
polski: Poskrzypka szparagowa
русский: Спаржевая трещалка
Türkçe: Kuşkonmaz zararlısı

The common asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi) is an important pest of asparagus crops both in Europe and in North America. Asparagus is its only food plant. The beetle is 6.0 mm to 9.5 mm long and slightly elongated. It is metallic blue-black in color with cream or yellow spots on its red-bordered elytra. The larvae are fat gray grubs with dark heads.[2][3]

The adult beetles and the larvae strip the needle-like leaves off the asparagus fronds, depriving the plants of the ability to photosynthesize and store energy for future years. They also chew the spears and lay generous amounts of eggs on them, making the crop unmarketable. The larvae feed on the plants for a few weeks, then drop to the ground to pupate. One year may see two or three generations of the beetle. The adults overwinter in a dormant state underground or in nearby leaf litter.

The parasitic wasp, Tetrastichus coeruleus, occurring mainly in the United States and Europe, can cause up to 71% mortality in the field and has been successfully used for biological control.[4][5]

Various insecticides (such as carbamates, pyrethroids, spinetoram, and spinosad) can be considered for pest control.[5][6][7]

The similar spotted asparagus beetle (Crioceris duodecimpunctata) is also a pest as an adult, feeding on tender shoots and leaves, but since the larvae feed only on the asparagus berries it is not considered to be as important.

Eggs of the asparagus beetle, laid on the stem of a flower of an asparagus plant

Larva of Crioceris asparagi

References

"Crioceris asparagi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Cranshaw, Whitney (2017-12-05). Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs (2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691167442.
Sorensen, Kenneth; Baker, James; Cameron Carter, Cathy; Stephan, David (1 January 2003). "Pests of Asparagus". NC State Extension Publications. North Carolina State University. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
Capinera, J. L.; Lilly, J. H. (1 February 1975). "Bionomics and biotic control of the asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, in western Massachusetts". Environmental Entomology. 4: 93–96. doi:10.1093/ee/4.1.93.
Morrison, William R.; Szendrei, Zsofia. "The Common Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Identification, Ecology, and Management". Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 5: B1–B6.
Hahn, Jeffrey (2018). "Asparagus beetles". UMN Extension. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
Espiritu, Kevin (13 February 2019). "Asparagus Beetles: All You Need To Know About The Crioceris Species". Epic Gardening. Retrieved 8 July 2019.

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