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Drosophilidae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Subclassis: Pterygota
Divisio: Neoptera
Subdivisio: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Ordo: Diptera
Subordo: Brachycera
Infraordo: Muscomorpha
Sectio: Schizophora
Subsectio: Acalyptrata
Superfamilia: Ephydroidea
Familia: Drosophilidae
Genera (72): Acletoxenus - Allopygaea - Amiota - Apacrochaeta - Apenthecia - Apsiphortica - Arengomyia - Baeodrosophila - Balara - Bialba - Cacoxenus - Calodrosophila - Celidosoma - Chymomyza - Cladochaeta - Collessia - Colocasiomyia - Crincosia - Dettopsomyia - Diathoneura - Dichaetophora - Dicladochaeta - Drosophila - Eostegana - Erima - Gitona - Hirtodrosophila - Hypselothyrea - Jeannelopsis - Laccodrosophila - Leucophenga - Liodrosophila - Lissocephala - Lordiphosa - Luzonimyia - Marquesia - Mayagueza - Microdrosophila - Mulgravea - Mycodrosophila - Neorhinoleucophenga - Neotanygastrella - Palmomyia - Palmophila - Paraleucophenga - Paraliodrosophila - Paramycodrosophila - Paraphortica - Pararhinoleucophenga - Parastegana - Phortica - Phorticella - Poliocephala - Pseudiastata - Pseudocacoxenus - Pseudostegana - Pyrgometopa - Rhinoleucophenga - Samoaia - Scaptodrosophila - Scaptomyza - Soederbomia - Sphaerogastrella - Sphyrnoceps - Stegana - Styloptera - Tambourella - Trachyleucophenga - Zaprionus - Zapriothrica - Zaropunis - Zygothrica

Name

Drosophilidae

References

* Brake, I.; Bächli, G. 2008: Drosophilidae (Diptera). World catalogue of insects, 9. Stenstrup: Apollo Books. ISBN 9788788757880
* Cariou, M.-L. et al. 2008: Drosophilidae of Seychelles: biogeography, ecology and conservation status. Phelsuma, 16: 19-30. PDF
* Linde, K. van der; Houle, D.; Spicer, G.S.; Steppan, S.J. 2010: A supermatrix-based molecular phylogeny of the family Drosophilidae. Genetics research, 92: 25-38. doi: 10.1017/S001667231000008X
* Macfarlane, R.P. et al. 2010: [Chapter] NINE Phylum ARTHROPODA SUBPHYLUM HEXAPODA Protura, springtails, Diplura, and insects. Pp. 233-467 in Gordon, D.P. (ed.): New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 2. Kingdom Animalia. Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, ichnofossils. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-87725793-3
* O'Connor, J.P. et al. 2007: A review of the Irish lesser fruit-flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Irish naturalists' journal, 28(12): 506-516. JSTOR
* O'Grady, P.M.; Magnacca, K.N.; Lapoint, R.T. 2010: Taxonomic relationships within the endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae (Insecta: Diptera). In: Evenhuis, N.L.; Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2008. Bishop Museum occasional papers, 108: 1–34. PDF


links

* Australian Faunal Directory
* Bächli G. TaxoDros: The Database on Taxonomy of Drosophilidae, v.1.03


Vernacular names
Deutsch: Taufliege
English: lesser fruit flies
한국어: 초파리과
日本語: ショウジョウバエ科
Suomi: Mahlakärpäset

Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, including the genus Drosophila, which includes fruit flies. The best known species is Drosophila melanogaster, which is used extensively for studies concerning genetics, development, physiology, ecology and behaviour. The fruit fly is mostly composed of post-mitotic cells, has a very short lifespan, and shows gradual ageing. As in other species, temperature influences the life history of the animal. Several genes have been identified whose manipulation extends the lifespan of these animals.


Economic significance

Generally, drosophilids are considered nuisance flies rather than pests, since most species breed in rotting material. Zaprionus indianus Gupta is unusual among Drosophilidae species in being a serious, primary pest of at least one commercial fruit, figs in Brazil.[1] Another species, Drosophila suzukii, infests thin-skinned fruit such a raspberries and cherries and can be a serious agricultural pest.[2] Drosophila repleta larvae inhabit drains and spread bacteria. Fruitflies in general are considered as a common vector in propagating acetic acid bacteria[3] in nature. This often ruins the alcohol fermentation process and can ruin the beer or wine by turning it into vinegar.

Identification

The diagnostic characters for Drosophilidae include the presence of an incomplete subcostal vein, two breaks in the costal vein, and a small anal cell in the wing; convergent postocellar bristles; and usually three frontal bristles on each side of the head, one directed forward and the other two directed rearward. More extensive identification characteristics can be found in "Drosophila: A Guide to Species Identification and Use" by Therese A. Markow and Patrick O'Grady, (Academic Press, 2005) ISBN 0124730523 or "Drosophila: A Laboratory Handbook" by M. Ashburner, K. Golic, S. Hawley, (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2005).

Phylogeny

The knowledge of the phylogeny of this family is incomplete. The family is subdivided in two subfamilies, the Drosophilinae and the Steganinae. The two subfamilies do not contain a single morphological character that distinguishes them. However, the combination of characteristics is sufficient to assign species correctly to the subfamilies.

Most molecular phylogeny studies focus on the genus Drosophila and related genera. Recently, an overview of the more than 100 articles using molecular techniques has been published [4]

References

1. ^ "Pest Alerts - Zaprionus indianus Gupta, DPI". Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/zaprionusindianus.html. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
2. ^ Drosophila suzukii Center of Invasive Species Research
3. ^ Vinegars of the World. Chapter 5. ISBN: 978-0-470-0865-6
4. ^ van der Linde, Kim; Houle, David (2008) A supertree analysis and literature review of the genus Drosophila and closely related genera (Diptera, Drosophilidae). Insect Systematics & Evolution 39(3): 241-267

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License