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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Pieridae
Subfamilia: Coliadinae
Genus: Eurema
Species: E. ada – E. adamsi – E. agave – E. albula – E. alitha – E. amelia – E. andersoni – E. arbela – E. arethusa – E. atinas – E. blanda – E. boisduvaliana – E. brigitta – E. candida – E. celebensis – E. daira – E. deflorata – E. desjardinsi – E. deva – E. ecriva – E. ecuadora – E. elathea – E. esakii – E. fabiola – E. floricola – E. fridea – E. gnatheme – E. gratiosa – E. hapale – E. hecabe – E. herla – E. hiurai – E. hyona – E. lacteola – E. laeta – E. leuce – E. lirina – E. lombokiana – E. lucina – E. mandarina – E. mandarinula – E. mentawiensis – E. mexicana – E. musa – E. mycale – E. nicevillei – E. nicippe – E. nicippiformis – E. nigrocincta – E. nilgiriensis – E. novapallida – E. palmira – E. paulina – E. phiale – E. puella – E. regularis – E. reticulata – E. salome – E. sari – E. sarilata – E. senegalensis – E. simulatrix – E. smilax – E. sybaris – E. tilaha – E. timorensis – E. tominia – E. tupuntenem – E. xanthochlora – E. zamida – E. zelia
Name

Eurema Hübner, 1819: 96

Type Species: Eureme delia Cramer, [1780]: 144, pl.273 fig.A
Synonyms

Abaeis Hübner, [1819]: 97.
Terias Swainson, [1821] txt, plate.
Xanthidia Boisduval & Le Conte, [1829]: 48.
Lucidia Lacordaire, 1833
Heurema Agassiz, [1847]
Sphaenogona Butler, 1870
Maiva Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1893
Kibreeta Moore, [1906]
Nirmula Moore, [1906]
Teriocolias Röber, [1909]

References

Brévignon, C. 1993. Description de deux nouveaux Pieridae provenant de Guyane Française (Lepidoptera). Bulletin de la Société Sciences Nat 77: 17–19. Reference page.
Brévignon, C. 1996c. Description d'une novelle sous-espece de Eurema daira(Godart, 1819) de Guyane française (Lepidoptera Pieridae). Lambillionea 96(Centenaire): 46–49. Reference page.
Hübner, J. 1819. Verzeichniß bekannter Schmettlinge 2–11: 17–176. BHL Reference page.
Jeratthitikul, E. et al. 2009. A taxonomic study of the genus Eurema Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in Thailand. Natural History journal of Chulalongkorn University, 9(1): 1–20. PDF Reference page.
Lamas, G. 2004. (ed.) Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. In Heppner, J.B. (ed.) Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Vol. 5A. Association for Tropical Lepidoptera/Scientific Publishers, Gainesville. 439p. Reference page.
Schröder, H.G., Treadaway, C.G. & Nuyda, j., 1990. Neue Eurema-Formen von den Philippinen (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 100 (8): 140–148. Reference page.
Shirôzu, T. & Yata, O., 1981. Ten New Subspecies of the Genus Eurema (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) from the Indo-Australian Region. Tyô to Ga, 32 (1,2): 49–62. Full article. Reference page.
Shirôzu, T. & Yata, O., 1982. New Names for Six Subspecies Belonging to Four Eurema Species (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Tyô to Ga 33 (1,2): 25. Full Article. Reference page.
Tennent, W.J., 2004. Three new Eurema subspecies from the Southwest Pacific (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Futao 48: 4–6. Reference page.
Watson, F.E., 1938. A new Eurema from Puerto Rico (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 971: 1–2. PDF. Reference page.
Williams, M.C. 2007. Checklist of Afrotropical Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea. 7th Edn. (April 2007). Downloaded from Afrotropical Butterflies. Reference page.
Yata, O., 1989. A Revision of the Old World Species of the Genus Eurema Hübner (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Part I. Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Subgenus Terias Swainson and Description of the Subgenus Eurema Hübner. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History, 9: 9–103. PDF. Reference page.
Yata, O., 1990. A new Eurema species from South India (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Esakia Special Issue no. 1: 161–165. Reference page.
Yata, O., 1991. A revision of the Old World species of the genus Eurema Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Part II. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History, 10: 1–51. Full article.Reference page.
Yata, O., 1992. A revision of the Old World species of the genus Eurema Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Part III. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History, 11: 1–77. Full Article. Reference page.
Yata, O., 1994. A revision of the Old World species of the Genus Eurema Hübner (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Part IV. description of the hecabe group (part). Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History, 13: 59–105. Full article Reference page.
Yata, O., 1995. A revision of the old world species of the Genus Eurema Hübner (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Part V. description of the hecabe group (part). Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History, 14: 1-54. pl.1-35. Full article Reference page.
Yata, O. & Gaonkar, H, 1999. A new subspecies of Eurema andersoni (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) from South India. Entomological Science 2(2), 261-285. Reference page.

Vernacular names
日本語: キチョウ属
中文: 黃粉蝶屬

Eurema is a widespread genus of grass yellow butterflies in the family Pieridae.

Species range from Asia, Africa, Australia, and Oceania, to the New World. The type species is the North American barred yellow (Eurema daira).

There are over 70 species in the genus, but more than 300 synonymous names have been applied to them. Some species, such as the common African grass yellow (E. hecabe) have over 80 synonyms. The genus itself has over 15 junior generic synonyms. This is the price of being a widespread taxon, as well as a zoogeographical problem.
Species

Listed alphabetically within groups:[1]

Eurema ada (Distant & Pryer, 1887)
Eurema alitha (C.& R. Felder, 1862) – scalloped grass yellow
Eurema andersonii (Moore, 1886) – one-spot grass yellow
Eurema beatrix (Toxopeus, 1939)
Eurema blanda (Boisduval, 1836) – three-spot grass yellow
Eurema brigitta (Stoll, [1780]) – small grass yellow or no brand grass yellow
Eurema candida (Stoll, [1782])
Eurema celebensis Wallace, 1867
Eurema desjardinsii (Boisduval, 1833) – angled grass yellow
?Eurema ecriva (Butler, 1873)
Eurema esakii Shirôzu, 1953
Eurema floricola (Boisduval, 1883) – Malagasy grass yellow
?Eurema halmaherana Shirôzu & Yata, 1981
Eurema hapale (Mabille, 1882) – pale grass yellow or marsh grass yellow
Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758) – common grass yellow
Eurema herla (Macleay, 1826) – pink grass yellow
?Eurema hiurae Shirozu & Yata, 1977
Eurema lacteola (Distant, 1886) – scarce grass yellow
Eurema laeta (Boisduval, [1836]) – spotless grass yellow
Eurema lombokiana Fruhstorfer, 1897
Eurema mandarinula (Holland, 1892) – mandarin grass yellow
Eurema mentawiensis Corbet, 1942
Eurema novapallida Yata, 1992
Eurema nilgiriensis Yata, 1990 – Nilgiri grass yellow
Eurema puella (Boisduval, 1832) – broad-margined grass yellow
Eurema regularis (Butler, 1876) – regular grass yellow
Eurema sari (Horsfield, [1829]) – chocolate grass yellow
Eurema sarilata Semper, 1891
Eurema senegalensis Boisduval, [1836] – forest grass yellow
Eurema simulatrix (Semper, 1891) – changeable grass yellow
Eurema smilax (Donovan, 1805) – small grass yellow
Eurema tilaha (Horsfield, [1829])
Eurema nicevillei (Butler, 1898) – Malayan grass yellow
Eurema timorensis Shirôzu & Yata, 1977
Eurema tominia (Vollenhoven, 1865)
Eurema upembana (Berger, 1981)
Eurema zamida (Fruhstorfer, 1908)

Species group:

Eurema adamsi (Lathy, 1898)
Eurema agave (Cramer, [1775])
Eurema albula (Cramer, [1776]) – ghost yellow
Eurema amelia (Poey, [1832])
Eurema arbela Geyer, [1832]
Eurema daira (Godart, [1819]) (type species) – barred yellow, fairy yellow, or barred sulphur
Eurema deva (Doubleday, 1847)
Eurema elathea (Cramer, [1777])
Eurema fabiola (C. & R. Felder, 1861)
Eurema lirina (Bates, 1861)
Eurema lucina (Poey, [1852])
Eurema mexicana (Boisduval, [1836]) – Mexican yellow
Eurema nigrocincta Dognin, 1889
Eurema paulina (Bates, 1861)
Eurema phiale (Cramer, [1775])
Eurema reticulata (Butler, 1871)
Eurema salome (C. & R. Felder, 1861) – Salome yellow
Eurema tupuntenem Lichy, 1976
Eurema xantochlora (Kollar, 1850) – tropical yellow

Species group abaeis:

Eurema nicippe (Cramer, [1779])
Eurema nicippiformis Munroe, 1947

Species group pyrisitia:

Eurema chamberlaini Butler, 1897
Eurema dina (Poey, 1832) – bush sulphur or dina yellow
Eurema euterpiformis Munroe, 1947
Eurema leuce (Boisduval, 1836) – Hall's sulphur
Eurema lisa (Boisduval & Leconte, 1829) – little yellow
Eurema messalina (Fabricius, 1787) – shy yellow
Eurema nise (Cramer, [1775]) – mimosa yellow
Eurema portoricensis (Dewitz, 1877) – Puerto Rican yellow
Eurema proterpia (Fabricius, 1775) – tailed orange or little jaune
Eurema pyro (Godart, 1819)
Eurema venusta (Boisduval, 1836)

Species group teriocolias:

Eurema zelia (Lucas, 1852)

Unknown species group

Eurema doris (Röber, 1909)
Eurema irena Corbet & Pendlebury, 1932
Eurema ormistoni (Watkins, 1925)
Eurema raymundoi (D'Almeida, 1928)
Eurema tondana (Felder, C & R Felder, 1865)

References

Eurema, page on Markku Savela's butterfly website

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

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