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Goliathus goliatus

Goliathus goliatus , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Scarabaeiformia
Superfamilia: Scarabaeoidea

Familia: Scarabaeidae
Subfamilia: Cetoniinae
Tribus: Goliathini
Subtribus: Goliathina
Genus: Goliathus
Species: Goliathus goliatus
Name

Goliathus goliatus (Linnaeus, 1771)

Synonyms

Scarabaeus goliatus Linnaeus, 1771
Scarabaeus goliath Sulzer, 1776 (Missp.)
Scarabaeus goliathus Goeze, 1777 (Emend.)
Goliathus africanus Lamarck, 1801
Goliathus giganteus Lamarck, 1817
Goliathus imperialis Klug, 1835
Goliathus magnus Duncan, 1835
Goliathus drurii Macleay, 1838
Goliathus giganteus conspersus Kraatz, 1889
Goliathus giganteus marginatus Kraatz, 1889
Goliathus giganteus marginifer Kraatz, 1889
Goliathus giganteus quadrimaculatus Kraatz, 1889
Goliathus giganteus apicalis Kraatz, 1895
Goliathus intermedius Kraatz, 1895
Goliathus giganteus nigripes Kraatz, 1895
Goliathus giganteus albatus Kraatz, 1897
Goliathus giganteus confluens Kraatz, 1897
Goliathus giganteus interruptus Kraatz, 1897
Goliathus giganteus undulatus Kraatz, 1897
Goliathus giganteus conjunctivittis Kraatz, 1898
Goliathus giganteus curtivittis Kraatz, 1898
Goliathus giganteus longivittis Kraatz, 1898
Goliathus giganteus connectens Csiki, 1904
Goliathus giganteus grandis Veen, 1904
Goliathus meleagris Sjöstedt, 1927
Goliathus meleagris ab. conjugatus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. divergens Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. maculatus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. niveus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. nyassae Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. oculatus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. partitus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. pustulatus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. pustuliferus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. quadrangulatus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus meleagris ab. varians Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus goliathus ab. adspersus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus confluens ab. albovariegatus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus goliathus ab. hieroglyphicus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus confluens ab. striatus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus goliathus ab. undulus Sjöstedt, 1928
Goliathus goliathus ab. albipennis Endrödi, 1960
Goliathus goliathus ab. guttatus Endrödi, 1960
Goliathus goliathus ab. palmatus Endrödi, 1960
Goliathus goliathus ab. trivittatus Endrödi, 1960
Goliathus goliathus ab. vittiger Endrödi, 1960

NOTE: Any name originally published as "ab." is permanently unavailable under ICZN Article 45.6.2 unless used as the valid name of a species or subspecies before 1986.

Goliathus goliatus

Goliathus goliatus is a species of beetles of the family Scarabaeidae.

Description

Goliathus goliatus is one of the largest species in the genus Goliathus, males having a body length of 50–110 millimetres (2.0–4.3 in) and females having a body length of 54–80 millimetres (2.1–3.1 in). The pronotum (thoracic shield) is mainly black, with whitish longitudinal stripes, while elytra are usually dark brown. This pattern may differ greatly in some of the many color forms.

This species possess a large and membranous secondary pair of wings actually used for flying. When not in use, they are kept completely folded beneath the elytra. The head is whitish, with a black Y-shaped horn in males, used as a pry bar in battles with other males over feeding sites or mates. These beetles feed primarily on tree sap and fruits.

Goliathus goliatus male, at the Montreal Insectarium

Goliathus goliatus male, dorsal side

Goliathus goliatus male, ventral side

Goliathus goliatus, male, with spread wings

Goliathus goliatus form "apicalis"

Goliathus goliatus form "conspersus"

Goliathus goliatus form "quadrimaculatus"

Distribution

This species is widespread from western to eastern equatorial Africa (Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Western Kenya and Northwestern Tanzania).
Habitat

Goliathus goliatus is mainly present in the equatorial forests and in the sub-equatorial savannah.
Exhibited in 1959 at New York City museum

On January 1, 1959, a species from Gabon, believed to be the first such beetle seen alive in the United States, went on display at the American Museum of Natural History.[2]
See also

List of largest insects

References

Michele De Palma, Hitoshi Takano, Philippe Leonard, Thierry Bouyer (2020) Barcoding analysis and taxonomic revision of Goliathus Lamarck, 1802 (Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae). Entomologia Africana 25(1):11-32
Schumach, Murray (January 1, 1959). "Museum to Show World's Biggest Insect; Beetle From Africa Peels Own Bananas". The New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2019.

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