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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraorder: Fulgoromorpha
Superfamilia: Fulgoroidea

Familia: Issidae
Subfamiliae (4): Hemisphaeriinae – Hysteropterinae – Issinae – Thioniinae

Genera Incertae sedis total (20):
Extant groups (19): Abolloptera – Argepara – Aztecus – Balduza – Bumaya – Carydiopterum – Delongana – Exortus – Gilda – Incasa – Kathleenum – Paralixes – Sarnus – Stilbometopius – Traxanellus – Traxus – Tylanira – Ulixes – Ulixoides
Fossil groups (1): † Breukoscelis
Overview of genera (226)

A

Abolloptera – Acrestia – Adenissus – Afronaso – Agalmatium – Agenia – Ahomocnemiella – Alleloplasis – Alloscelis – Amnisa – Amphiscepa – Aphelonema – Apsadaropteryx – Asarcopus
B

Balisticha – Bardunia – Bergrothora – Bilbilicallia – Bilbilis – Bowesdorpia – Brachyproposa – Brahmaloka – Bruchomorpha – Bruchoscelis
C

Caepovultus – Capelopterum – Celyphoma – Ceratogergithus – Cheiloceps – Chimetopon – Chlamydopteryx – Chondroptera – Choutagus – Cicimora – Clipeopsilis – Coinquenda – Colpoptera – Concepcionella – Conocaliscelis – Conosimus – Coruncanius – Cotylana
D

Dalmatrium – Danepteryx – Darwallia – Delhina – Delongana – Devagama – Dictyobia – Dictyonia – Dictyonissus – Dictyssa – Dictyssonia – Dindinga – Distiana – Distichoptera – Dracela – Duriopsis – Duroides – Dyctidea
E

Epitonga – Epyhemisphaerius – Euhemisphaerius – Eupilis – Euroxenus – Eusarima – Eusarimissus – Euthiscia – Euxaldar
F

Falcidiopsis – Falcidius – Fieberium – Fitchiella – Flavina – Forculus – Forculusoides – Fortunia – Fritzruehlia
G

Gabaloeca – Galapagosana – Gamergomorphus – Gamergus – Gelastissus – Gelastyrella – Gergithoides – Gergithus – Gilda – Givaka – Glyphotonga – Griphissus – Gwurra
H

Hemiphile – Hemisobium – Hemisphaerius – Hemisphaeroides – Hemitonga – Heremon – Hesperophara – Homaloplasis – Homocnemia – Hysterodus – Hysteropterissus – Hysteropterum – Hysterosphaerius
I

Ikonza – Ingoma – Isobium – Issarius – Issopulex – Issus – Itatiayana
J

Jagannata – Johannesburgia
K

Katonella – Kervillea – Kiomonia – Kodaianella – Kodaianellissus
L

Latissus – Libanissum – Lipocallia – Longieusarima – Lusanda
M

Macrodaruma – Macrodarumoides – Mangola – Mincopius – Misodema – Mongoliana – Mushya – Mycterodus – Myrmissus
N

Nacmusius – Narayana – Neaethus – Neocolpoptera – Neodurium – Neogergithoides – Neohemisphaerius – Neolollius – Neotetricodes – Neotylana – Nikomiklukha – Nubithia
O

Ohausiella – Okissus – Ommatidiotus – Ordalonema – Orinda – Oronoqua – Orthophana – Osbornia
P

Papagona – Paragamergomorphus – Paralusanda – Paramangola – Paranaso – Paranipeus – Paratetrica – Paratonga – Paratylana – Paroxychara – Peripola – Perissana – Pharsalus – Phasmena – Picumna – Plagiopsis – Plagiopsola – Plummerana – Populonia – Potaninum – Prosonoma – Proteinissus – Prothona – Pseudodurium – Pseudogergithus – Pseudohemisphaerius – Pseudotylana – Pterilia – Pterygoma
Q

Quadrastylum
R

Radha – Redarator – Retaldar – Rhinogaster – Rileyopsis
S

Samantiga – Sarima – Sarimodes – Sarnus – Savanopulex – Scalabis – Scantinius – Scorlupella – Semiperipola – Semissus – Sfaxia – Sivaloka – Sudasina – Sundorrhinus – Syrgis
T

Tatva – Tempsa – Tetrica – Tetricodes – Tetricissus – Thabena – Thabenoides – Theryana – Thionia – Thioniamorpha – Thioniella – Thionissa – Togoda – Traxanellus – Traxus – Trienopa – Tshurtshurnella – Tubilustrium – Tylana – Tylanira
U

Ugandana – Ugoa – Ulixes – Ulixoides
V

Vindilis – Vishnuloka
Name

Issidae Spinola, 1839
References

Spinola M., 1839. Essai sur les fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des cicadaires, ordre des rhyngotes. Publisher not identified.
Chang, Z-M., Yang, L. & Chen, X-S. 2020. First records of the genera Sivaloka Distant, 1906, with two new species from China, and description of a new species of genus Kodaianella Fennah, 1956 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae). ZooKeys, 917: 85–104. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.917.47326 Open access Reference page.
Fennah, R.G. 1954: The higher classification of the family Issidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) with descriptions of new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 105: 455–474. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1954.tb00772.x
Gnezdilov, V.M. 2009: Revisionary notes on some tropical Issidae and Nogodinidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 49: 75–92. Abstract
Gnezdilov, V.M. 2010: Three new genera and three new species of the family Issidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from Borneo and Sumatra. Tijdschrift voor entomologie, 153: 41–52.
Gnezdilov, V.M. 2018. To the revision of the genus Thionia Stål (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae), with description of new genera and new subtribe. Zootaxa 4434(1): 158–170. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4434.1.10 Paywall Reference page.
Gnezdilov, V.M. & S. Drosopoulos, 2004: Review of the subgenus Semirodus Dlabola of the genus Mycterodus Spinola (Homoptera: Issidae). Ann. Soc. entomol. Fr.(n.s.) 40 (3-4): 235–241. Full article: [1]
Gnezdilov, V.M. 2016. A review of the genus Ikonza Hesse with notes on evolution of the family Issidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea). Entomological Review 96(2): 225–244. Reference page.
Gnezdilov, V.M.; Fletcher, M.J. 2010: A review of the Australian genera of the planthopper family Issidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) with description of an unusual new species of Chlamydopteryx Kirkaldy. Zootaxa, 2366: 35–45. Preview
Gnezdilov, V.M. & Malenovský, I. 2008. New synonymy and homonymy replacement for Conosimus caucasicus Melichar, 1914 (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Issidae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 48(1): 23–26. PDF Reference page.
Gnezdilov, V.M.; Soulier-Perkins, A.; Bourgoin, T. 2011: Fieber’s original drawings and their corresponding types for the family Issidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha) in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, France. Zootaxa, 2806: 24–34. Preview
Meng, R. & Wang, Y-L. 2016. Descriptions of new species of the genera Sarima Melichar and Sarimodes Matsumura from southern China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae). ZooKeys 557: 93–109. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.557.6166. Reference page.
Meng, R., Wang, Y-L. & Qin, D-Z. 2016. Four new species of the genus Mongoliana Distant (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from southern China. Zootaxa 4061(2): 101–118. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4061.2.1. Reference page.
Stroiński, A., Gnezdilov, V.M. & Bourgoin, B. 2011. Sub-brachypterous Ricaniidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) of Madagascar with morphological notes for these taxa. Zootaxa 3145: 1–70. Preview Reference page.
Wang, M-L. & Bourgoin, T. 2020. A new genus of the tribe Sarimini (Fulgoromorpha, Issidae) from the Guangxi Province of China. ZooKeys, 912: 13–23. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.912.39589 Open access Reference page.
Wang, M-L., Bourgoin, T. & Zhang, Y-L. 2017. New Oriental genera in the family Issidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha). Zootaxa 4312(2): 355–367. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4312.2.10. Reference page.
Yang, L-J., Chang, Z-M., Yang, L. & Chen, X-S. 2021. A new species of the genus Euxaldar Fennah, 1978 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae) from China and revision on the molecular phylogeny of the family. Zookeys 1021: 19–35. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1021.35510 Open access Reference page.
Zhang, Z-G., Chang, Z-M. & Chen, X-S. 2016. Review of the planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) with description of one new species from China. ZooKeys 568: 13-21. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.568.6700.Reference page.
Zhang, Z-G., Chang, Z-M. & Chen, X-S. 2018. A new species of the genus Euxaldar Fennah, 1978 from China (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae). ZooKeys 781: 51–58. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.781.27059 Reference page.
Zhang, Y. & Y.-L. Che, 2009: Checklist of Gergithus Stål (Hemiptera: Issidae: Hemisphaeriinae) with Descriptions of Two New Species from China. Entomotaxonomia 31 (3): 181–187. Abstract: [2]
Zhao, S-P., Bourgoin, T. & Wang, M-L. 2019. The impact of a new genus on the molecular phylogeny of Hemisphaeriini (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae). ZooKeys, 880: 61–74. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.880.36828 Open access Reference page.

Links

Zicha, Ondřej et al. Issidae – Taxon details on Biological Library (BioLib).

Vernacular names
English: Issid Planthoppers

Issidae is a family of planthoppers described by Spinola in 1839, belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha superfamily Fulgoroidea.

Distribution

Species of this family are present throughout the Northern Hemisphere.
Description
Issid nymph

Issidae are small insects generally with a stocky body, as the wings mainly develop in width. Basic body coloration is not striking, usually shows brownish colors. The head has two ocelli. The forewings have strong pronounced ribs. They wrap the abdomen when the insect is at rest. The family originally included approximately 1000 species with 215 genera, but the systematics of Issidae remains uncertain, with many of the subfamilies having been recently removed to separate families, including Caliscelidae. Nogodinidae, and Tropiduchidae.

In 2013, scientists described a biologically unique set of mechanical gears in an Issus nymph, though identical structures are known in most planthoppers, and were known for decades[1] before the function of the gears was discovered[2]
Taxonomy

The family Issidae was once large and included many groups which are now treated in other families or as families themselves. These groups include the Caliscelidae, Nogodinidae, and Tropiduchidae (e.g., subfamilies Tonginae and Trienopinae). Around 2003, there was a view in favour of a single subfamily Issinae, but the current consensus is placement in four (as below). The Catalogue of Life[3] lists genera in five tribes Issini, Parahiraciini, Hemisphaeriini and Thioniini. The tribe Colpopterini[4] have now been placed in family Nogodinidae Melichar, 1898 having been raised to a subfamily.[5] The oldest fossil of the group is Cubicostissus of the Paleocene Menat Formation of France, belonging to the tribe Hysteropterini, molecular clock calibrations suggest a diversification during the Upper Cretaceous.[6]
Subfamilies, Tribes and selected Genera

Fulgoromorpha Lists On the Web[7] lists four subfamilies:
Hemisphaeriinae

Authority: Melichar, 1906

Hemisphaeriini Melichar, 1906
Gergithus
Hemisphaerius
Kodaianellini Wang, Zhang & Bourgoin, 2016
Parahiraciini Cheng & Yang, 1991
†Bolbossus Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2016 Baltic amber, Eocene (Priabonian)
Sarimini Wang, Zhang & Bourgoin, 2016
Hemisphaeriinae incertae sedis

Hysteropterinae

Authority: Melichar, 1906; there are currently 61 genera including:

Agalmatium Emeljanov, 1971
Falcidius Stål, 1866
Hysteropterum Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843 - type genus
†Cubicostissus Bourgoin & Nel, 2020 Menat Formation, France, Paleocene (Selandian)

Issinae

The monotypic subfamily contains tribe Issini Spinola, 1839[8] and has a widespread distribution in Europe, the Middle East and temperate Asia.[9] There are currently four genera:

†Issites Haupt, 1956 Germany, Eocene (Lutetian)
Issus Brullé, 1832 – type genus
Latissus Dlabola, 1974
Sinonissus Wang, Shi & Bourgoin, 2018

Thioniinae

Authority: Melichar, 1906 There are currently 3 tribes:

Cordelini Gnezdilov, 2019 (1 genus)
Cordela Gnezdilov, 2019
Guianaphrynini Gnezdilov, 2018 (1 genus)
Guianaphryna Gnezdilov, 2018
Thioniini Melichar, 1906 (14 genera)
Oronoqua Fennah, 1947
Cheiloceps Uhler, 1895
Thionia Stal, 1859
Waorania Gnezdilov & Bartlett, 2018

Issidae incertae sedis

Twenty genera are currently placed here:

Abolloptera Gnezdilov & O'Brien, 2006
Argepara Gnezdilov & O'Brien, 2008
Aztecus Gnezdilov & O'Brien, 2008
Balduza Gnezdilov & O'Brien, 2006
Bumaya Gnezdilov & O'Brien, 2008
Carydiopterum Gnezdilov, 2017
Delongana Caldwell, 1945
Exortus Gnezdilov, 2004
Gilda Walker, 1870
Incasa Gnezdilov & O'Brien, 2008
Kathleenum Gnezdilov, 2004
Paralixes Caldwell, 1945
Sarnus Stål, 1866
Stilbometopius Gnezdilov & O'Brien, 2006
Traxanellus Caldwell, 1945
Traxus Metcalf, 1923
Tylanira Ball, 1936
Ulixes Stål, 1861
Ulixoides Haupt, 1918

Uphodato Szwedo 2019, Krundia Szwedo 2019 and Breukoscelis Szwedo 2019 from the Bembridge Marls, England dating Eocene (Priabonian) were considered members of this family upon description, however, other authors have found assignation to Issidae dubious.[6]
References

K. Sander. 1957. Bau und Funktion des Sprungapparates von Pyrilla perpusilla WALKER (Homoptera - Fulgoridae). Zool. Jb. Jena (Anat.) 75, 383–388
Burrows, Malcolm; Sutton, Gregory (2013-09-13), "Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect" (PDF), Science, 341 (6151): 1254–1256, doi:10.1126/science.1240284, hdl:1983/69cf1502-217a-4dca-a0d3-f8b247794e92, PMID 24031019, S2CID 24640726, lay summary – ScienceNews.org
Catalogue of life
Gnezdilov, Vladimir M. (2002). "A new tribe of the family Issidae with comments on the family as a whole (Homoptera: Cicadina)" (PDF). Zoosystematica Rossica. 11 (2): 305–309.
Fulgoromorpha Lists On the Web (FLOW): Colpopterinae Gnezdilov, 2003 (retrieved 21 July 2020)
Bourgoin, Thierry; Wang, Menglin; Nel, André (2020-01-22). "The oldest fossil of the family Issidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha) from the Paleocene of Menat (France)". European Journal of Taxonomy (596). doi:10.5852/ejt.2020.596. ISSN 2118-9773.
Fulgoromorpha Lists On the Web (FLOW): Issidae Spinola, 1839 (retrieved 21 July 2020)
Spinola M. 1839 - Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. Paris 8: 133-337.

Fulgoromorpha Lists On the Web (FLOW): Issini Spinola, 1839 (retrieved 21 July 2020)

W. E. Holzinger, I. Kammerlander, H. Nickel: The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe - Die Zikaden Mitteleuropas. Volume 1: Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excl. Cicadellidae. - Brill, Leiden 2003
Stephen W. Wilson – Keys to the families of Fulgoromorpha with emphasis on planthoppers of potential importance in the Southern United States -Florida Entomologist 88(4) Fcla.edu

External links

Fauna Europaea
Biolib

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

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