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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Heteroptera
Infraordo: Pentatomomorpha
Superfamilia: Lygaeoidea
Familiae (16): Artheneidae - Berytidae - Blissidae - Colobathristidae - Cryptorhamphidae - Cymidae - Geocoridae - Heterogastridae - Lygaeidae - Malcidae - Meschiidae - Ninidae - Oxycarenidae - Pachygronthidae - Piesmatidae - Rhyparochromidae

[source: Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist, plus (3) Colobathristidae - Cryptorhamphidae - Meschiidae]

Name

Lygaeoidea
Synonyms

Piesmatoidea

References

Henry, T.J. 1997: Phylogenetic analysis of family groups within the infraorder Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the Lygaeoidea. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 90: 275–301.

Additional references

Kondorosy, E. & Rédei, D. 2015. Lectotype designations and taxonomic corrections on species of Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Gustav Breddin. Zootaxa 3964(1): 101–113. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3964.1.7. ResearchGate Open access Reference page.
Ghahari, H.; Moulet, P. 2012: An annotated catalog of the Iranian Lygaeoidea (excluding Berytidae and Piesmatidae) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha). Zootaxa 3408: 1–33. Preview Reference page.
Swanson, D.R., Taylor, S.J. & Heads, S.W. 2017. Nine true bugs (Heteroptera) newly-discovered in Illinois. Zootaxa 4269(4): 571–585. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4269.4.10. Reference page.

Vernacular names
suomi: Varjoluteet
עברית: פנדוריים
日本語: ナガカメムシ上科

The Lygaeoidea are a sizeable superfamily of true bugs, containing seed bugs and allies, in the order Hemiptera. There are about 16 families and more than 4,600 described species in Lygaeoidea, found worldwide. Most feed on seeds or sap, but a few are predators.[1][2][3]

The ash-gray leaf bug family (Piesmatidae) is generally considered a member of the superfamily Lygaeoidea, but in the past it was sometimes placed in its own superfamily.[1][4][5][3][2][6]
Yemma exilis
Families

These 16 families belong to the superfamily Lygaeoidea. The majority of them were considered to be part of the family Lygaeidae before Thomas J. Henry's work was published in 1997.[1][7]

Artheneidae Stål, 1872
Berytidae Fieber, 1851 (stilt bugs)
Blissidae Stål, 1862
Colobathristidae Stal, 1865
Cryptorhamphidae
Cymidae Baerensprung, 1860
Geocoridae Baerensprung, 1860 (big-eyed bugs)
Heterogastridae Stål, 1872
Lygaeidae Schilling, 1829 (seed bugs)
Malcidae Stål, 1865
Meschiidae Malipatil, 2013
Ninidae Barber, 1956
Oxycarenidae Stål, 1862
Pachygronthidae Stål, 1865
Piesmatidae Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843 (ash-gray leaf bugs)
Rhyparochromidae Amyot & Serville, 1843 (dirt-colored seed bugs)

References

Dellapé, Pablo M.; Henry, Thomas J. (2021). "Lygaeoidea Species File". Retrieved 2021-10-04.
"Lygaeoidea superfamily Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
"Lygaeoidea Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
Li, Min; Wang, Yanhui; Xie, Qiang; Tian, Xiaoxuan; et al. (2016). "Reanalysis of the phylogenetic relationships of the Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) based on ribosomal, Hox and mitochondrial genes". Entomotaxonomia. 38 (2). doi:10.11680/entomotax.2016021.
Liu, Yingqi; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Zhao, Yisheng; et al. (2019). "Higher-level phylogeny and evolutionary history of Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences". Systematic Entomology. 44 (4). doi:10.1111/syen.12357.
David A. Grimaldi & Michael S. Engel (2007). "An unusual, primitive Piesmatidae (Insecta: Heteroptera) in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma)" (PDF). American Museum Novitates (3611): 1–17. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2008)3611[1:AUPPIH]2.0.CO;2.
Henry, Thomas J. (1997). "Phylogenetic Analysis of Family Groups within the Infraorder Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with Emphasis on the Lygaeoidea". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 90 (3): 275–301. doi:10.1093/aesa/90.3.275.

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