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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Sternorrhyncha
Superfamilia: Coccoidea

Familia: Margarodidae
Subfamiliae [after Foldi (2005)]: Eumargarodinae - Margarodesiinae - Margarodinae - Neomargarodinae - Porphyrophorinae - Termitococcinae
Overview of genera (10)

Dimargarodes – Eumargarodes – Eurhizococcus – Heteromargarodes – Margarodes – Margarodesia – Neomargarodes – Porphyrophora – Promargarodes – Termitococcus
Name

Margarodidae
Synonyms

Termitococcidae

References

Foldi, I. 2005: Ground pearls: a generic revision of the Margarodidae sensu stricto (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea). Annales de la Société entomologique de France (n.s.), 41: 81–125. PDF
Hodgson, C.; Foldi, I. 2006: A review of the Margarodidae sensu Morrison (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and some related taxa based on the morphology of adult males. Zootaxa, 1263: 1–250.

Links

Miller, D. & Y. Ben-Dov. 2005. ScaleNet[1]

Vernacular names
日本語: ワタフキカイガラムシ科

The Margarodidae (illegitimately as Margodidae) or ground pearls are a family of scale insects within the superfamily Coccoidea. Members of the family include the Polish cochineal and Armenian cochineal (genus Porphyrophora) and the original ground pearl genus, Margarodes. Beginning in 1880, a number of distinct subfamilies were recognized, with the giant coccids (the Monophlebidae) being the first.[4] Although Maskell proposed a new family, many continued to regard the monophlebids as a mere subfamily for many years,[5] and the Margarodidae classification[1][6] continued to be polyphyletic through the 20th Century.[5] Since then, taking the advice of Koteja[7] several subfamilies and tribes have been elevated into their own families such as Matsucoccidae and Xylococcidae.[2] The pared-down family of Margarodidae (Margarodidae sensu stricto or Margarodidae s. s.) is monophyletic.[2][8]

List of genera

Dimargarodes Silvestri, 1938
Eumargarodes Jakubski, 1950
Eurhizococcus Silvestri, 1936
Heteromargarodes Jakubski, 1965
Margarodes Guilding, 1828
Margarodesia Foldi, 1981
Neomargarodes Green, 1914
Porphyrophora Brandt, 1833
Promargarodes Silvestri, 1938
Termitococcus Silvestri, 1901

Former genera

Crypticerya Cockerell, 1895 now in the Monophlebidae
Desmococcus McKenzie, 1942 now in the Pityococcidae
Drosicha Walker, 1858 now in the Monophlebidae
Gueriniella Fernald, 1903 now in the Monophlebidae
Icerya Signoret, 1875 now in the Monophlebidae
Kuwania Cockerell in Fernald, 1903 now in the Kuwaniidae
Marchalina Vayssiere, 1923 now in the Marchalinidae
Matsucoccus Cockerell, 1909 now in the Matsucoccidae
Palaeococcus Cockerell, 1894 now in the Monophlebidae
Steingelia Nassonov, 1908 now in the Steingeliidae
Xylococcus Löw, 1883 now in the Xylococcidae

See also

Callipappidae, former subfamily of the Margarodidae
Coelostomidiidae, former subfamily of the Margarodidae

References

Morrison, Harold (1928). A classification of the higher groups and genera of the coccid family Margarodidae. USDA Technical Bulletin, 52. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture.
Foldi, Imre (2005). "Ground pearls: a generic revision of the Margarodidae sensu stricto (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea)" (PDF). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. New Series. 41 (1): 81–125. doi:10.1080/00379271.2005.10697442. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 May 2012.
Vahedi, Hassan‐Ali & Hodgson, C. J. (2007). "Some species of the hypogeal scale insect Porphyrophora Brandt (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Margarodidae) from Europe, the Middle East and North Africa". Systematics and Biodiversity. 5 (1): 23–122. doi:10.1017/S1477200006002039.
Maskell recognized the Monophlebidae as a separate family that year, Maskell, W. M. (1880). "Further notes on New Zealand Coccidae". Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 12: 291–301.
Gullan, P. J. & Sjaarda, A. W. (2001). "Trans‐Tasman Platycoelostoma Morrison (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Margarodidae) on endemic Cupressaceae, and the phylogenetic history of margarodids". Systematic Entomology. 26 (3): 257–278. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3113.2001.00145.x.
Jakubski, Antoni Władysław (1965). A Critical Revision of the Families Margarodidae and Termitococcidae (Hemiptera, Coccidoidea). London: Trustees of the British Museum, Natural History.
Koteja, J. (1974). "On the phylogeny and classification of the scale insects (Homoptera, Coccinea) (discussion based on the morphology of the mouthparts)". Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. 19: 267–325.
Hodgson, Chris J. & Hardy, Nate B. (2013). "The phylogeny of the superfamily Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) based on the morphology of extant and extinct macropterous males". Systematic Entomology. 38 (4): 794–804. doi:10.1111/syen.12030.

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