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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: incertae sedis
Ordo: †Miomoptera
Familiae: Archaemiopteridae - Metropatoridae - Palaeomanteidae - Permosialidae

Storozhenko, S.Yu. & V.G. Novokshonov, 1999: To the knowledge of the fossil family Permosialidae (Insecta: Miomoptera). - Far Eastern entomologist. 76: 1–5. Full article: [1]

Miomoptera is an extinct order of insects. Although it is thought to be a common ancestor of all holometabolous insects, because no smooth transition between Miomoptera and other holometabolous insect orders is known, it is considered to be in a separate order unto itself.

The Miomopterans were small insects, with unspecialised chewing mandibles and short abdominal cerci. They had four wings of equal size, with a relatively simple venation, similar to that of the more primitive living holometabolous insects, such as lacewings.[2]

Adult morphology suggests the adults lived in open habitats. The morphology and gut content shows they fed on the pollen and strobili of gymnosperms. Based on the morphology of the ovipositor, larvae also fed on the pollen of strobili, moving between the scales from one microsporangium to another.[3]
Families and genera

  • Metropatoridae
    • Metropator
  • Archaemiopteridae
    • Archaemioptera
    • Eodelopterum
    • Saaromioptera
    • Tychtodelopterum
  • Palaeomanteidae
    • Palaeomantis
    • Delopterum
    • Miomatoneura
    • Miomatoneurella
    • Permodelopterum
    • Perunopterum
  • Permosialidae Martynov, 1928
    • Epimastax Martynov, 1928
    • Permonka Riek, 1973
    • Sarbalopterodes Storozhenko, 1991
    • Permosialis Martynov, 1928


Storozhenko, S. Yu.; V. G. Novokshonov (August 1999). "To the Knowledge of the Fossil Family Permosialidae (Insecta: Miomoptera)" (PDF). Far East Entomologist. 76: 1–5. ISSN 1026-051X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-10. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
Hoell, H.V.; Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 322. ISBN 0-19-510033-6.
Novokshonov, V. G.; L. V. Zhuzhgova (2004). "Discussion of the System and Phylogeny of the Order Palaeomanteida (= Miomoptera) (...)" (PDF). Paleontological Journal. 38 (Suppl. 2): S173–S184. Retrieved 2008-04-11.

Tree of Life Web Project. 2003. Miomoptera. in The Tree of Life Web Project,

Rasnitsyn, A.P. & Dijk, D.E., van. 2011. The first Gondwanan Epimastax from the Lopingian of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Insecta: Palaeomanteida = Miomoptera: Permosialidae). African Invertebrates 52 (1): 207–209.[1]

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