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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Neuropterida
Ordines: Megaloptera - Neuroptera - Raphidioptera
[list of ordines after Grimaldi & Engel (2005: 147, table 4.1)]

Familia: †Nanosialidae

Aspöck, U. 2002: Phylogeny of the Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). Zoologica Scripta, 31: 51–56.
Büning, J. 2005: The telotrophic ovary known from Neuropterida exists also in the myxophagan beetle Hydroscapha natans. Development genes and evolution, 215: 597–607.
Büning, J. 2006: Ovariole structure supports sistergroup relationship of Neuropterida and Coleoptera. Arthropod systematics & phylogeny, 64: 115–126. [1]
Cameron, S.L.; Sullivan, J.; Song, H.; Miller, K.B.; Whiting, M.F. 2009: A mitochondrial genome phylogeny of the Neuropterida (lace-wings, alderflies and snakeflies) and their relationship to the other holometabolous insect orders. Zoologica scripta, 38: 575–590. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2009.00392.x
Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. 2005: Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. limited preview on Google books
Haring, E.; Aspöck, U. 2004: Phylogeny of the Neuropterida: a first molecular approach. Systematic entomology, 29: 415–430.
Oswald, J.D. 2007: Neuropterida species of the world: a catalogue of the species-group names of the extant and fossil Neuropterida (Insecta: Neuroptera, Megaloptera and Raphidioptera) of the world
Tauber, C.A., Simmons, Z. & Tauber, A.J. 2019. Type specimens of Neuropterida in the Hope Entomological Collection, Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Zookeys, 823: 1–126. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.823.30231 Reference page.

Vernacular names
magyar: Fátyolkák

The Neuropterida[1] are a clade, sometimes placed at superorder level, of holometabolous insects with over 5,700 described species, containing the orders Neuroptera (lacewings, antlions), Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies), and Raphidioptera (snakeflies).

Historically, they were known as Neuroptera, but this name nowadays refers to lacewings and their relatives (e.g. antlions) only, which formerly were known as Planipennia. Part of the Endopterygota and related to beetles, they can be considered an unranked taxon. Arguably, the Endopterygota might be considered an unranked clade instead, and be divided into numerous superorders to signify the close relationships of certain endopterygote groups.[2]

The Mecoptera (scorpionflies) were formerly included here too by some authors, but they actually belong to the Mecopteroidea (or Antliophora), the endopterygote clade containing also true flies and fleas.

Neuropterida are fairly primitive-looking insects, with large wings but weak wing muscles, giving them a clumsy flight. Most are active at dusk or in the night as adults, and the larvae of many are aquatic, living in rivers. At least the larvae, but in many cases the adults too, are predators of small arthropods. Adult neuropteridans range in size from that of a midge to that of a large dragonfly (15 cm wingspan); the largest species tend to resemble drab, clumsily flying damselflies.

In addition to the three living orders, there is an entirely extinct family of Neuropterida, the monotypic Rafaelidae. These are of an indeterminate but probably rather basal position; thus the single genus Rafaelia from the Early Cretaceous Santana Formation's Crato Member in Brazil might for the time being be better placed in the Neuropterida directly, without assigning it to an order, until relatives are found and/or its systematic position gets resolved better.[2] The extinct order Glosselytrodea may also be a member or close relative, though classification is unclear.[3]

Molecular analysis has clarified the group's phylogeny, as shown in the cladogram.[4][5]


Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Snakefly R. confinis? (cropped).jpg

Megaloptera (alderflies and allies) Schlammfliege Sialis sp 5325.jpg


Osmylidae (giant lacewings) Oedosmylus sp crop.jpg

Hemerobiiformia (lacewings) Micromus variegatus01.jpg

Myrmeleontiformia (antlions and allies) Distoleon tetragrammicus01.jpg


"ITIS & Species 2000 Catalogue of Life Management Hierarchy". Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
Haaramo, Mikko (2008): Mikko's Phylogeny Archive: Neuropterida. Version of 11 March 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2008.
Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-26877-7.
Yue, Bi-Song; Song, Nan; Lin, Aili; Zhao, Xincheng (2018). "Insight into higher-level phylogeny of Neuropterida: Evidence from secondary structures of mitochondrial rRNA genes and mitogenomic data". PLOS ONE. 13 (1): e0191826. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191826. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5790268. PMID 29381758.
Yan, Y.; Wang Y; Liu, X.; Winterton, S. L.; Yang, D. (2014). "The First Mitochondrial Genomes of Antlion (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) and Split-footed Lacewing (Neuroptera: Nymphidae), with Phylogenetic Implications of Myrmeleontiformia". Int J Biol Sci. 10 (8): 895–908. doi:10.7150/ijbs.9454. PMC 4147223. PMID 25170303.

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