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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Cladus: Macroheterocera
Superfamilia: Noctuoidea

Familia: Noctuidae
Subfamiliae (33): AcontiinaeAcronictinae – Aediinae – AgaristinaeAmphipyrinaeAraeopteroninaeBagisarinae - Balsinae - Bryophilinae - Cocytiinae - Condicinae - Cuculliinae - Cydosiinae - Dilobinae - Diphtherinae – Dyopsinae – Eriopinae - Eucocytiinae - Eustrotiinae - Hadeninae – Heliothinae – Lophonyctinae – Metoponiinae – NoctuinaeOncocnemidinae - PantheinaePlusiinaePsaphidinaeRaphiinae – Sinocharinae – StiriinaeStrepsimaninaeThiacidinaeXyleninae – Unassigned

[subfamiliae after Lafontaine & Fibiger (2006), Hacker & Zilli (2007), Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010), Zahiri et al. (2013)]

Overview of genera

Anagnorisma – Cirrhia – Cryptochrysa – Dolocucullia – Flavala – Gracilisinensis – Habershonia – Mooreia – Naaroides – Ortopla – Prainacerca – Thraumata – Tmetolophota
...
Name

Noctuidae Latreille, 1809.
References
Primary references

Latreille, P.A. 1809. Genera crustaceorum et insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata. Tomus quartus et ultimus. Parisiis: A. Koenig, 399 pp. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Behounek, G., Han, H.L. & Kononenko, V.S. 2016. A replacement name for Flavala Behounek, Han & Kononenko, 2012 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Pantheinae). Zootaxa 4189(3): 593–594. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4189.3.10 Reference page.
Boursin, C., Sheljuzhko, L. & Diakonoff, A., 1964: Lepidoptera der Deutschen Nepal-Expedition 1955 - Teil II. Veröffentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München, 008: 1- 50. Full article: [1].
Chen, Y.X. 1994: Four new species of Noctuidae from China (Lepidoptera). Acta Entomologica Sinica 37(2): 215–217. Full article: [2].
Crabo, L.G., Hammond, P.C., Mustelin, T. & Wikle, D.L. 2018. Six new species and one new subspecies of noctuid moths from western United States of America and Mexico (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Pp 201–239 In Schmidt, B.C. & Lafontaine, J.D. (eds.) 2018. Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths VII. ZooKeys 788: 1–252. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.788.26282 Reference page.
Dolinskaya, I.V. 2016. Comparative morphology on the egg chorion characters of some Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Zootaxa 4085(3): 374–393. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4085.3.3.Reference page.
Fibiger & Hacker, 2007, Amphipyrinae, Condicinae, Eriopinae, Xyleninae (Part)- Noctuidae Europaea Volume 9: 410 pp.
Goldstein, P.Z. & Zilli, A. 2019. Thraumata, a new genus from South America with description of a new species from Peru (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Zookeys, 867: 139–160. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.867.28728 Reference page.
Gyulai, P., Saldaitis, A. & Vaitonis, G. 2017. A new genus of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) from China with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 4353(2): 393–398. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4353.2.12. Reference page.
Hacker, H., 2013: Additions to several revisions of Noctuid genera revised from 2001 to 2011, with descriptions of nine new species and three new subspecies from Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Iran, with faunistic Notes (Noctuoidea). Esperiana, Buchreihe zur Entomologie, 18: 199–220. Abstract: [3].
Hacker, H. & W. Mey, 2010: Beiträge zur taxonomie, systematik und faunistik von Noctuidae (Noctuoidea), hauptsächlich aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Esperiana Memoir 5: 457–468.
Hacker, H.H. & A. Saldaitis, 2010: Noctuidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen) with notes on the fauna of the southern Arabian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea). Esperiana Memoir 5: 172–241.
Hacker, H.H. & A. Saldaitis, 2011: Noctuidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen) Contribution II (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea). Esperiana Buchreihe zur Entomologie 16: 73–88.
Hacker, H.H.; Zilli, A. 2007: Revisional notes on the genus Thiacidas Walker, 1855, with descriptions of Thiacidinae subfam. nov. and eleven new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Esperiana Memoir 3: 179–246.
Holloway, 2005, Malayan Nature Journal 58: 1–529.
Hosseini, R. & Madahi, K. 2018. A multiplex PCR method for identification of two common true cutworm species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) tested in the central plain of Guilan province, Iran. Zootaxa 4420(2): 243–250. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4420.2.6 Paywall Reference page.
Köhler, P., 1968: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna Boliviens XXI. Veröffentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München, 012: 1- 19. Full article: [4].
Lafontaine, J.D. & Fibiger, M. 2006. Revised higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Canadian entomologist 138(5): 610–635. DOI: 10.4039/n06-012 Reference page.
Lafontaine, J.D. & Schmidt, B.C. 2010. Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. Zookeys 40: 1–239. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.40.414 Reference page.
Matsumura, S., 1926: New Species of Noctuidae from Japan and Formosa. Insecta Matsumurana 1 (1): 1–17. Full article: [5].
Matsumura, S., 1926: New Species of Noctuidae from Japan and Corea. Insecta Matsumurana 1 (2): 53–62. Full article: [6].
Mitchell, A.; Mitter, C.; Regier, J.C. 2006: Systematics and evolution of the cutworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): evidence from two protein-coding nuclear genes. Systematic entomology, 31: 21–46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2005.00306.x PDF
Pitkin, B. & P. Jenkins. Butterflies and Moths of the World: Generic Names and their Type-species. Natural History Museum.[7]
Poole, R.W., 1989: Noctuidae, in Lepidopterorum Catalogus, editus a F. Bryk.
Regier, J.C., Mitter, C., Mitter, K., Cummings, M.P., Bazinet, A.L., Hallwachs, W., Janzen, D.H. & Zwick, A. 2017. Further progress on the phylogeny of Noctuoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera) using an expanded gene sample. Systematic entomology 42(1): 82–93. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12199 Reference page.
Ronkay, G. & Ronkay, L., 2009: A Taxonomic Atlas of the Eurasian and North African Noctuoidea: Cuculliinae I. The Witt Catalogue Volume, 2: 1–365.
Ronkay, L., 1983: Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) from Mongolia. Noctuidae, Quadrifinae. Annales historico-naturales Musei nationalis hungarici 75: 229–246. Full article: [8].
Ronkay, L. & Z. Varga, 1984: Neue Noctuiden aus Armenien bzw. aus dem Kaukasus-Raum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Zeitschrift Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichischer Entomologen 36 (3/4): 86–94. Full article: [9].
Rota, J., Zacharczenko, B.V., Wahlberg, N., Zahiri, R., Schmidt, B.C. & Wagner, D.L. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships of Acronictinae with discussion of the abdominal courtship brush in Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Systematic Entomology 41(2): 416–429. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12162. Reference page.
Schmidt, B.C. & Lafontaine, J.D. 2015. Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths VI. Zookeys 527: 1–2. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.527.6803 Full article Reference page.
Speidel, W.; Fanger, H.; Naumann, C.M. 1996: The phylogeny of the Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Systematic entomology, 21: 219–251. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3113.1996.d01-14.x PDF
Todd, E.l., 1982: The Noctuid type material of John B. Smith (Lepidoptera). U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1645: 1–228.
Wearing, C.H.; Colhoun, K.; Attfield, B.; Marshall, R.R. 2010: Phenology and management of noctuids attacking apple in Central Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand entomologist, 33: 55–67.
Witt, T.J. & Ronkay, L. (Eds.) 2011. Noctuidae Europaeae. Volume 13. Lymantriinae and Arctiinae, including phylogeny and check list of the quadrifid Noctuoidea of Europe. Entomological Press, Sorø, 448 pp. ISBN 978-87-89430-18-8. Reference page.
Zahiri, R., Kitching, I.J., Lafontaine, J.D., Mutanen, M., Kaila, L., Holloway, J.D. & Wahlberg, N. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40(2): 158–173. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00459.x Full article (PDF). Reference page.
Zahiri, R., Lafontaine, D., Schmidt, C., Holloway, J.D., Kitching, I.J., Mutanen, M. & Wahlberg, N. 2013. Relationships among the basal lineages of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea) based on eight gene regions. Zoologica Scripta 42(5): 488–507. DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12022 Reference page.
Zilli,A. , L.Ronkay & M. Fibiger, 2005: Apameini Noctuidae Europaea Volume 8: 323 pp.

Vernacular names
العربية: ليليات
башҡортса: Төн күбәләктәре
беларуская: Соўкі
català: Noctuid
dansk: Ugler
Deutsch: Eulenfalter
English: Owlet Moths
eesti: Öölased
فارسی: شاپرکان جغدی
suomi: Yökköset
français: Noctuidés
עברית: תנשמיתיים
hrvatski: Sovice
magyar: Bagolylepkefélék
հայերեն: Բվիկներ
日本語: ヤガ科
қазақша: Түн көбелектері
한국어: 밤나방과
lietuvių: Pelėdgalviai
മലയാളം: മൂങ്ങക്കണ്ണൻശലഭം
Nederlands: Uiltjes
norsk: Nattfly
polski: Sówkowate, sówki
پنجابی: الو پتنگا
русский: Совки
српски / srpski: Совице
svenska: Nattflyn
українська: Совки
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tunlamlar
中文: 夜蛾科

The Noctuidae, commonly known as owlet moths, cutworms or armyworms, are the most controversial family in the superfamily Noctuoidea because many of the clades are constantly changing, along with the other families of the Noctuoidea.[1][2][3] It was considered the largest family in Lepidoptera for a long time, but after regrouping Lymantriinae, Catocalinae and Calpinae within the family Erebidae, the latter holds this title now.[4] Currently, Noctuidae is the second largest family in Noctuoidea, with about 1,089 genera and 11,772 species.[5] However, this classification is still contingent, as more changes continue to appear between Noctuidae and Erebidae.
Description
Noctuidae wings venation
Noctuidae wings venation

Adult: Most noctuid adults have drab wings, but some subfamilies such as Acronictinae and Agaristinae are very colorful, especially those from tropical regions (e.g. Baorisa hieroglyphica). They are characterized by a structure in the metathorax called the nodular sclerite or epaulette, which separates the tympanum and the conjunctiva in the tympanal organ. It functions to keep parasites (Acari) out of the tympanal cavity. Another characteristic in this group is trifine hindwing venation, by reduction or absence of the second medial vein (M2).[6]

Larva: Commonly green or brown; however, some species present bright colors, such as the camphorweed cucullia moth (Cucullia alfarata). Most are pudgy and smooth with rounded short heads and few setae, but there are some exceptions in some subfamilies (e.g. Acronictinae and Pantheinae).[7]

Pupa: The pupae most often range from shiny brown to dark brown. When they newly pupate they are bright brownish orange, but after a few days start to get darker.

Eggs: Vary in colors, but all have a spherical shape.
Etymology

The word Noctuidae is derived from the name of the type genus Noctua, which is the Latin name for the little owl, and the patronymic suffix -idae used typically to form taxonomic family names in animals.[8]

The common name "owlet" originally means a small or young owl. The names "armyworms" and "cutworms" are based on the behavior of the larvae of this group, which can occur in destructive swarms and cut the stems of plants.[9]
Ecology
Distribution and diversity
Setaceous Hebrew character

This family is cosmopolitan and can be found worldwide except in the Antarctic region. However, some species such as the setaceous Hebrew character (Xestia c-nigrum) can be found in the Arctic Circle, specifically in the Yukon territory of western Canada, with an elevation 1,702 m above sea level, where the temperature fluctuates between 23/-25 °C (73/-13 °F).[10] Many species of dart moths have been recorded in elevations as high as 4,000 m above sea level (e.g. Xestia elisabetha).[11] Among the places where the number of species has been counted are North America and northern Mexico, with about 2,522 species. 1,576 species are found in Europe, while the other species are distributed worldwide.[3][12][13][14][15]
Mutualism
A Lychnis moth caterpillar feeding on the seeds of red campion (Silene dioica).

Members of Noctuidae, like other butterflies and moths, perform an important role in plant pollination. However, some species have developed a stronger connection with their host plants. For example, the lychnis moth (Hadena bicruris) has a strange mutualistic relationship with pink plants or carnation plants (Caryophyllaceae), in that larvae feed on the plant while the adults pollinate the flowers.[16]
The eight-spotted forester moth (Alypia octomaculata) puddling on water from a leaf of firebush (Croton lucidus).
Food guilds

Herbivory: Caterpillars of most Noctuidae feed on plants; some feed on poisonous plants and are unaffected by their chemical defences; for example, the splendid brocade moth (Lacanobia splendens) feeds on cowbane (Cicuta virosa), a plant that is notoriously toxic to vertebrates.[17]

Predation and cannibalism: During the larval stage, some cutworms readily feed on other insects. One such species is the shivering pinion (Lithophane querquera), whose larvae commonly feed on other lepidopteran larvae.[18] Moreover, many noctuid larvae, such as those of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and of genera such as Heliothis and Helicoverpa, aggressively eat their siblings and often other species of caterpillar.[19]

Nectarivory and puddling: Like many Lepidoptera, many species of adult Noctuidae visit flowers for their nectar. They also seek other liquid food resources such as plant juices, honeydew, dung, urea and mud, among others.[20]

As is common in members of the order Lepidoptera, courtship in many Noctuidae includes a set of movements in which the female evaluates the male's reproductive fitness.[20]

Most noctuid moths produce pheromones that attract the opposite gender. Female pheromones that attract males occur widely and have long been studied, but the study of male pheromones has further to go.[20][21][22]
Reproduction
Lesser yellow underwing

Noctuid moths commonly begin the reproductive season from spring to fall, and mostly are multivoltine, such as the eastern panthea moth (Panthea furcilla), which reproduces over the year.[23] Nevertheless, some species have just one brood of offspring (univoltine); among the best known is the lesser yellow underwing (Noctua comes).[23]
Defense
Xanthopastis timais (Cramer), feeding on amaryllis
The Spanish moth feeding on Amaryllis sp.

This group has a wide range of both chemical and physical defenses. Among the chemical defenses three types stand out. First, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration usually present in Arctiinae is also found in a few species of noctuids, including the Spanish moth (Xanthopastis timais).[24] Another chemical defense is formic acid production, which was thought to be present only in Notodontidae, but later was found in caterpillars of Trachosea champa.[25] Finally, the last type of chemical defense is regurgitation of plant compounds, often used by many insects, but the cabbage palm caterpillar (Litoprosopus futilis) produces a toxin called toluquinone that deters predators.[26]

On the other hand, the main physical defense in caterpillars and adults alike is mimicry. Most owlet moths have drab colors with a variety of patterns suitable to camouflage their bodies.[23] The second physical defense consists in thousands of secondary setae that surround the body. The subfamilies that present this mechanism are Pantheinae and Acronictinae. The third is aposematism, represented by species of Cucullinae.[23] Finally, all adults have another mechanism for defense: a tympanal organ available to hear the echolocation spread out by bats, so the moths can avoid them.[27]
Human importance
The Old World bollworm caterpillar feeding on a strawberry.
Agriculture

Many species of owlet moths are considered an agricultural problem around the world. Their larvae are typically known as "cutworms" or "armyworms" due to enormous swarms that destroy crops, orchards and gardens every year. The Old World bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) produces losses in agriculture every year that exceed US$2 billion.[28] Additionally, the variegated cutworm (Peridroma saucia) is described by many as one of the most damaging pests to vegetables.[29]

In West Africa, species including Busseola fusca, Heliocheilus albipunctella, Sesamia calamistis, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera exempta are major pests of staple crops such as pearl millet, sorghum, and maize.[30]
Systematics

Since molecular analysis began to play a larger role in systematics, the structure of many Lepidoptera groups has been changing and Noctuidae is not an exception. Most recent studies have shown that Noctuidae sensu stricto is a monophyletic group, mainly based on trifine venation. However, there are some clades within Noctuidae sensu lato that have to be studied. This taxonomic division represents the subfamilies, tribes and subtribes considered so far.[1][12][31][32]

Family Noctuidae Latreille, 1809
Subfamily Acontiinae Guenée, 1841

Tribe Acontiini Guenée, 1841
Tribe Armadini
Tribe Chamaecleini

Subfamily Acronictinae Harris, 1841
Subfamily Aediinae
Subfamily Agaristinae Boisduval, 1833
Subfamily Amphipyrinae Guenée, 1837

Tribe Amphipyrini Guenée, 1837
Tribe Psaphidini Grote, 1896

Subtribe Feraliina Poole, 1995
Subtribe Nocloina Poole, 1995
Subtribe Psaphidina Grote, 1896
Subtribe Triocnemidina Poole, 1995

Subfamily Bagisarinae Crumb, 1956
Subfamily Balsinae Grote, 1896
Subfamily Bryophilinae Guenée, 1852
Subfamily Cobubathinae Wagner & Keegan, 2021
Subfamily Condicinae Poole, 1995

Tribe Condicini Poole, 1995
Tribe Leuconyctini Poole, 1995

Subfamily Cropiinae Keegan & Wagner, 2021
Subfamily Cuculliinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1850
Subfamily Dilobinae
Subfamily Dyopsinae
Subfamily Eriopinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1851
Subfamily Eucocytiinae
Subfamily Eustrotiinae Grote, 1882
Subfamily Grotellinae
Subfamily Heliothinae Boisduval, 1828
Subfamily Metoponiinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1851

Tribe Cydosiini Kitching & Rawlins, 1998

Subfamily Noctuinae Latreille, 1809

Tribe Actinotiini Beck, 1996
Tribe Apameini Guenée, 1841
Tribe Arzamini Grote, 1883
Tribe Caradrinini Boisduval, 1840

Subtribe Athetiina Fibiger & Lafontaine, 2005
Subtribe Caradrinina Boisduval, 1840

Tribe Dypterygiini Forbes, 1954
Tribe Elaphriini Beck, 1996
Tribe Episemini
Tribe Eriopygini Fibiger & Lafontaine, 2005
Tribe Glottulini Guenée, 1852
Tribe Hadenini Guenée, 1837
Tribe Leucaniini Guenée, 1837
Tribe Noctuini Latreille, 1809

Subtribe Agrotina Harris, 1841
Subtribe Axyliina
Subtribe Noctuina Latreille, 1809

Tribe Orthosiini Guenée, 1837
Tribe Phlogophorini Hampson, 1918
Tribe Phosphilini Poole, 1995
Tribe Prodeniini Forbes, 1954
Tribe Pseudeustrotiini Beck, 1996
Tribe Tholerini Beck, 1996
Tribe Xylenini Guenée, 1837

Subtribe Antitypina Forbes & Franclemont, 1954
Subtribe Cosmiina Guenée, 1852
Subtribe Ufeina Crumb, 1956
Subtribe Xylenina Guenée, 1837

Subfamily Oncocnemidinae Forbes & Franclemont, 1954
Subfamily Pantheinae Smith, 1898
Subfamily Plusiinae Boisduval, 1828

Tribe Abrostolini Eichlin & Cunningham, 1978
Tribe Argyrogrammatini Eichlin & Cunningham, 1978
Tribe Plusiini Boisduval, 1828

Subtribe Autoplusiina Kitching, 1987
Subtribe Euchalciina Chou & Lu, 1979
Subtribe Plusiina Boisduval, 1828

Subfamily Raphiinae
Subfamily Stiriinae

Tribe Annaphilini
Tribe Stiriini Grote, 1882

Subtribe Annaphilina Mustelin, 2006
Subtribe Azeniina Poole, 1995
Subtribe Grotellina Poole, 1995
Subtribe Stiriina Grote, 1882

Genera with intervening taxonomy not available include:

Alastria
Epilitha
Fabula
Lanatopyga
Lenisa
Neoligia
Orohadena
Orthomoia
Protapamea
Proxenus
Pseudluperina

References

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Lafontaine, J. Donald; Fibiger, Michael (1 October 2006). "Revised higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera)". The Canadian Entomologist. 138 (5): 610–635. doi:10.4039/n06-012. ISSN 1918-3240. S2CID 86122393.
Michael, Fibiger; Donald, Lafontaine, J.; H., Hacker, Hermann (1 January 2005). A Review of the Higher Classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) With Special Reference to the Holarctic Fauna. Beilage zu Band 11: (Notodontidae, Nolidae, Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, Erebidae, Micronoctuidae, and Noctuidae): Gesamtinhaltsverzeichnis Bände 1-10: Indices Bände 1-10. Delta-Druck und Verlag Peks. ISBN 978-3938249017. OCLC 928877801.
Zahiri, Reza; Holloway, Jeremy D.; Kitching, Ian J.; Lafontaine, J. Donald; Mutanen, Marko; Wahlberg, Niklas (1 January 2012). "Molecular phylogenetics of Erebidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea)". Systematic Entomology. 37 (1): 102–124. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00607.x. ISSN 1365-3113. S2CID 84249695.
Zhang, Z.-Q., ed. (23 December 2011). "Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 3148: 217. ISBN 9781869778491.
Fibiger, Michael (2007). The Lepidoptera of Israel. Coronet Books Incorporated. ISBN 9789546422880.
Wagner, David L. (25 April 2010). Caterpillars of Eastern North America: A Guide to Identification and Natural History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1400834143.
Speidel, W.; Naumann, C. M. (2004). "A survey of family‐group names in noctuoid moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera)". Systematics and Biodiversity. 2 (2): 191–221. doi:10.1017/S1477200004001409. ISSN 1477-2000. S2CID 85652010.
Rice, Marlin E. (1 January 2004). "Armyworm defoliating young corn". Integrated Crop Management News.
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Gyulai, P.; Ronkay, L.; Saldaitis, A. (4 November 2013). "Two new Xestia Hübner, 1818 species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)". Zootaxa. 3734 (1): 96–100. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3734.1.12. ISSN 1175-5334. PMID 25277901. S2CID 21336866.
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Schmidt, Bjorn Christian; Lafontaine, J. Donald (24 November 2011). Contributions to the Systematics of New World Macro-moths III. ZooKeys. PenSoft Publishers LTD. pp. 1–4. doi:10.3897/zookeys.149.2383. ISBN 9789546426185. PMC 3234404. PMID 22207789.
Lafontaine, Donald; Schmidt, Christian (2 June 2013). "Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico". ZooKeys (264): 227–236. doi:10.3897/zookeys.264.4443. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 3668382. PMID 23730184.
Lafontaine, J. Donald; Schmidt, B. Christian (15 October 2015). "Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico III". ZooKeys (527): 127–147. doi:10.3897/zookeys.527.6151. ISSN 1313-2989. PMC 4668890. PMID 26692790.
Bopp, Sigrun; Gottsberger, Gerhard (1 January 2004). "Importance of Silene latifolia ssp. alba and S. dioica (Caryophyllaceae) as Host Plants of the Parasitic Pollinator Hadena bicruris (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)". Oikos. 105 (2): 221–228. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12625.x. JSTOR 3548083.
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