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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Ordo: Orthoptera
Subordines: Caelifera - Ensifera – ?†Titanoptera
Name

Orthoptera Latreille, 1793
Synonyms

Saltatoria

References
Primary references

Template:Latreille, 1793

Olivier, G.A. 1789. Encyclopédie méthodique. Histoire naturelle. Insectes., Vol. 4. Panckoucke, Paris. 331 pp. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Béthoux, O. & Nel, A. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96(1): 1–88. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.96.1.1 Paywall. Reference page.
Hemp, C. 2013. Annotated list of Ensifera (Orthoptera) and further records on Caelifera (Orthoptera) of Mt Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Zootaxa 3613(4): 301–342. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3613.4.1. Reference page.
Hollier, J., Bruckner, H. & Heads, S.W. 2013. An annotated list of the Orthoptera (Insecta) species described by Henri de Saussure, with an account of the primary type material housed in the Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Genève, Part 5: Grylloidea. Revue suisse de zoologie 120(3): 445–535. Abstract only seen (PDF) Reference page.
Holuša, J. et al. 2013: Annotated checklist of the grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera) of the Czech Republic. Zootaxa 3616(5): 437–460. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3616.5.2 Reference page.
Ingrisch, S. 2011. New taxa of Mirolliini from South East Asia and evidence for an abdominal gland in male Phaneropterinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Zootaxa 2943: 1–44. Preview. Reference page.
Kim, T.; Pham, H.-T. 2014: Checklist of Vietnamese Orthoptera (Saltatoria). Zootaxa 3811(1): 53–82. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3811.1.3 Reference page.
Kim, T.-W., Puskás, G. 2012. Check-list of North Korean Orthoptera based on the specimens deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Zootaxa 3202: 1–27. Preview (PDF)
Béthoux, O., Nel, A. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1–88. Abstract & excerpt (PDF)
Yong, S.; Perez-Gelabert, D.E. 2014: Grasshoppers, crickets and katydids (Insecta: Orthoptera) of Cuba: an annotated checklist. Zootaxa 3827(4): 401–438. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3827.4.1 Reference page.
Dawwrueng, P., Tan, M.K., Artchawakom, T. & Waengsothorn, S. 2017. Species checklist of Orthoptera (Insecta) from Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Thailand (Southeast Asia). Zootaxa 4306(3): 301–324. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4306.3.1. Reference page.
Miskelly, J. & Paiero, S.M. 2019. Mantodea, Blattodea, Orthoptera, Dermaptera, and Phasmida of Canada. Pp 255–269 In Langor, D.W. & Sheffield, C.S. (eds.). The Biota of Canada – A Biodiversity Assessment. Part 1: The Terrestrial Arthropods. ZooKeys 819: 520 pp. Reference page. . DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.819.27241 Reference page.
Pina, S., Vasconcelos, S., Reino, L., Santana, J., Beja, P., Sánchez-Oliver, J.S., Catry, I., Moreira, F. & Ferreira, S. 2017. The Orthoptera of Castro Verde Special Protection Area (Southern Portugal): new data and conservation value. ZooKeys 691: 19—48. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.691.14842. Reference page.
Tan, M.K., Choi, J. & Shankar, N. 2017. Trends in new species discovery of Orthoptera (Insecta) from Southeast Asia. Zootaxa 4238(1): 127–134. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4238.1.10. Reference page.
Tan, M.K. & Kamaruddin, K.N. 2016. A contribution to the knowledge of Orthoptera diversity from Peninsular Malaysia: Bukit Larut, Perak. Zootaxa 4111(1): 21–40. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4111.1.2. Reference page.
Tan, M.K. & Wahab, R. bin H.A. 2018. Preliminary study on the diversity of Orthoptera from Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. Journal of Orthoptera Research 27(2): 119–142. DOI: 10.3897/jor.27.24152 Reference page.
Zhang, X-H., Hao, J-F., Xia, Y., Chang, Y., Zhang, D-C. & Yin, H. 2017. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of the Orthoptera (Arthropoda, Insecta) based on Hexamerin Sequences. Zootaxa 4232(4): 523–534. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4232.4.4. Reference page.

Links

Eades, D.C., Otte, D., Cigliano, M.M. & Braun, H. Orthoptera Species File Online. Version 2.0/4.0. <http://Orthoptera.SpeciesFile.org>
Orthoptera – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Orthoptera – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
Orthoptera Taxon details on Fauna Europaea

Vernacular names
Alemannisch: Gradfligler
aragonés: Inseuto
asturianu: Inseutu
беларуская: Прамакрылыя
български: Правокрили
čeština: Rovnokřídlí
dansk: Græshopper
Deutsch: Geradflügler
English: Grasshoppers
Esperanto: Ortopteroj
español: Ortopteros
eesti: Sihktiivalised
suomi: Suorasiipiset
Nordfriisk: Hopern
français: Orthoptères
עברית: חגב
magyar: Egyenesszárnyúak
հայերեն: Ուղղաթևներ
日本語: バッタ目 (直翅目)
한국어: 메뚜기목 (직시목)
lietuvių: Tiesiasparniai
latviešu: Taisnspārņi
македонски: Правокрилци
norsk: Rettvinger
Diné bizaad: Nahachagii
polski: Prostoskrzydłe
português: Gafanhotos
русский: Прямокрылые
slovenščina: Kobilice
svenska: Hopprätvingar
中文: 直翅目

Orthoptera (from Ancient Greek ὀρθός (orthós) 'straight', and πτερά (pterá) 'wings') is an order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets, including closely related insects, such as the bush crickets or katydids and wētā. The order is subdivided into two suborders: Caelifera – grasshoppers, locusts, and close relatives; and Ensifera – crickets and close relatives.

More than 20,000 species are distributed worldwide.[1] The insects in the order have incomplete metamorphosis, and produce sound (known as a "stridulation") by rubbing their wings against each other or their legs, the wings or legs containing rows of corrugated bumps. The tympanum, or ear, is located in the front tibia in crickets, mole crickets, and bush crickets or katydids, and on the first abdominal segment in the grasshoppers and locusts.[2] These organisms use vibrations to locate other individuals.

Grasshoppers and other orthopterans are able to fold their wings (i.e. they are members of Neoptera).

Etymology

The name is derived from the Greek ὀρθός orthos meaning "straight" and πτερόν pteron meaning "wing".
Characteristics

Orthopterans have a generally cylindrical body, with elongated hindlegs and musculature adapted for jumping. They have mandibulate mouthparts for biting and chewing and large compound eyes, and may or may not have ocelli, depending on the species. The antennae have multiple joints and filiform type, and are of variable length.[2]

The first and third segments on the thorax are larger, while the second segment is much smaller. They have two pairs of wings, which are held overlapping the abdomen at rest. The forewings, or tegmina, are narrower than the hindwings and hardened at the base, while the hindwing is membranous, with straight veins and numerous cross-veins. At rest, the hindwings are held folded fan-like under the forewings. The final two to three segments of the abdomen are reduced, and have single-segmented cerci.[2]
Life cycle

Orthopterans have a paurometabolous lifecycle or incomplete metamorphosis. The use of sound is generally crucial in courtship, and most species have distinct songs.[3] Most grasshoppers lay their eggs in the ground or on vegetation. The eggs hatch and the young nymphs resemble adults, but lack wings and at this stage are often called 'hoppers'. They may often also have a radically different coloration from the adults. Through successive moults, the nymphs develop wings until their final moult into a mature adult with fully developed wings.[2]

The number of moults varies between species; growth is also very variable and may take a few weeks to some months depending on food availability and weather conditions.
Evolution

This order evolved 300 million years ago with a division into two suborders - Caelifera and Ensifera - occurring 256 million years ago.[4]
Phylogeny

The Orthoptera is divided into two suborders, Caelifera and Ensifera (crickets) which have been shown to be monophyletic.[5][6][7]

Orthoptera
Ensifera

Grylloidea (crickets) Arachnocephalus vestitus01.jpg

Rhaphidophoroidea (cave wētā, cave crickets) Ceuthophiluscricket.jpg

Tettigoniidea (grigs, wētā, katydids, etc) Cricket September 2010-1.jpg

Schizodactyloidea (dune crickets) Пальцепалый кузнечик.jpg

Caelifera
Tridactylidea

Tridactyloidea Pygmy mole cricket (8071068977) cropped.jpg

[2 extinct superfamilies]

 Acrididea 

Tetrigoidea Tetrix subulata 2.JPG

Acridomorpha

Eumastacoidea Monkey hopper (14795010039).jpg

Pneumoroidea Bladder Grasshopper (Bullacris intermedia) (30068047440).jpg

Pyrgomorphoidea Variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus).jpg

Acridoidea etc. SGR laying.jpg




Taxonomy
Garden locust (Acanthacris ruficornis), Ghana, family Acrididae
Variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus), Ghana, family Pyrgomorphidae
Proscopiidae sp. from the Andes of Peru

Taxonomists classify members of the Caelifera and Ensifera into infraorders and superfamilies as follows:[8][9][10]

Suborder Caelifera – grasshoppers, pygmy mole crickets and allies
Infraorder Acrididea
Superfamily Acridoidea – grasshoppers, locusts
Superfamily Eumastacoidea – monkey or matchstick grasshoppers and allies
Superfamily Locustopsoidea†
Superfamily Pneumoroidea – bladder grasshoppers
Superfamily Pyrgomorphoidea – gaudy grasshoppers
Superfamily Tanaoceroidea – desert long-horned grasshoppers
Superfamily Tetrigoidea – ground-hoppers or grouse locusts
Superfamily Trigonopterygoidea – leaf grasshoppers
Infraorder Tridactylidea
Superfamily Dzhajloutshelloidea†
Superfamily Regiatoidea†
Superfamily Tridactyloidea – pygmy mole crickets and allies
Suborder Ensifera – crickets
Superfamily Grylloidea – crickets, mole crickets
Superfamily Hagloidea – grigs and allies
Superfamily Phasmomimoidea†
Superfamily Rhaphidophoroidea – camel crickets, cave crickets, cave wētā
Superfamily Schizodactyloidea – dune crickets
Superfamily Stenopelmatoidea – wētā and allies
Superfamily Tettigonioidea – katydids / bush crickets

Relationships with humans
As pests

Several species of Orthoptera are considered pests of crops and rangelands or seeking warmth in homes by humans. The two species of Orthoptera that cause the most damage are grasshoppers and locusts. Locust are historically known for wiping out fields of crops in a day. Locust have the ability to eat up to their own body weight in a single day.[11] Individuals gather in large groups called swarms, these swarms can range up to 80 million individuals that stretch 460 square miles.[11] Grasshoppers can cause major agricultural damage but not to the documented extent as locust historically have. These insects mainly feed on weeds and grasses, however, during times of drought and high population density they will feed on crops. They are known pest in soybean fields and will likely feed on these crops once preferred food sources have become scarce.[12]
As food
See also: Insects as food

Most orthopterans are edible, making up 13% of all insects including some 80 species of grasshoppers being regularly consumed worldwide.[13] In Madagascar and Oaxaca, grasshoppers and locusts are usually collected early in the morning when it is cooler as the orthopterans are less mobile due to being cold-blooded.[13] In Thailand, house crickets are commonly reared and eaten; as of 2012, around 20,000 cricket farmers had farms in 53 of their 76 provinces.[13]

In the second century BCE in Ancient Greece, Diodorus Siculus is known to have called people from Ethiopia Acridophagi, meaning "eaters of locusts."[13]

In Judaism, the Orthoptera include the only insects considered kosher. The list of dietary laws in the book of Leviticus forbids all flying insects that walk, but makes an exception for certain locusts. Notably, the dragonfly and crane fly are not considered kosher even though they are helpless when unable to fly.[14] The Torah states the only kosher flying insects with four walking legs have knees that extend above their feet so that they hop.[15]
As creators of biofuel

With new research showing promise in locating alternative biofuel sources in the gut of insects, grasshoppers are one species of interest. The insect's ability to break down cellulose and lignin without producing greenhouse gases has aroused scientific interest.[16]
See also

List of Orthoptera recorded in Britain
Orthopterida
Female sperm storage

References

"Orthoptera - Grasshoppers, Locusts, Crickets, Katydids". Discover Life. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
Hoell, H.V., Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. pp. 392–394. ISBN 978-0-19-510033-4.
Imes, Rick (1992), The practical entomologist, Simon and Schuster, pp. 74–75, ISBN 978-0-671-74695-7
Chang H, Qiu Z, Yuan H, Wang X, Li X, Sun H, Guo X, Lu Y, Feng X, Majid M, Huang Y (2020) Evolutionary rates of and selective constraints on the mitochondrial genomes of Orthoptera insects with different wing types. Mol Phylogenet Evol
Zhou Z, Ye H, Huang Y, Shi F. (2010) The phylogeny of Orthoptera inferred from mtDNA and description of Elimaea cheni (Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) mitogenome. J. Genet. Genomics. 37(5):315-324
Gwynne, Darryl T. (1995). "Phylogeny of the Ensifera (Orthoptera): a hypothesis supporting multiple origins of acoustical signalling, complex spermatophores and maternal care in crickets, katydids, and weta". Journal of Orthoptera Research. 4 (4): 203–218. doi:10.2307/3503478. JSTOR 3503478.
Flook, P. K.; Rowell, C. H. F. (1997). "The Phylogeny of the Caelifera (Insecta, Orthoptera) as Deduced from mtrRNA Gene Sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (1): 89–103. doi:10.1006/mpev.1997.0412. PMID 9242597.
"Orthoptera Species File Online" (PDF). University of Illinois. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
Blackith, RE; Blackith, RM (1968). "A numerical taxonomy of Orthopteroid insects". Australian Journal of Zoology. 16 (1): 111. doi:10.1071/ZO9680111.
Flook, P. K.; Klee, S.; Rowell, C. H. F.; Simon, C. (1999). "Combined Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of the Orthoptera (Arthropoda, Insecta) and Implications for Their Higher Systematics" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 48 (2): 233–253. doi:10.1080/106351599260274. ISSN 1076-836X. PMID 12066707.
Society, National Geographic. "Locusts, Locust Pictures, Locust Facts - National Geographic". National Geographic. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
Krupke, Christian. "Grasshoppers | Pests | Soybean | Integrated Pest Management | IPM Field Crops | Purdue University". extension.entm.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
van Huis, Arnold. Edible Insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security (PDF). Rome. ISBN 9789251075968. OCLC 868923724.
Gordon, David George (1998), The eat-a-bug cookbook, Ten Speed Press, p. 3, ISBN 978-0-89815-977-6
Navigating the Bible: Leviticus
Shi, Weibing; Xie, Shangxian; Chen, Xueyan; Sun, Su; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Lantao; Gao, Peng; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; No, En-Gyu (January 2013). "Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Endosymbionts of Herbivorous Insects Reveals Eco-Environmental Adaptations: Biotechnology Applications". PLOS Genetics. 9 (1): e1003131. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003131. PMC 3542064. PMID 23326236.

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