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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Scarabaeiformia
Superfamilia: Scarabaeoidea

Familia: Scarabaeidae
Subfamilia: Melolonthinae
Tribus: Melolonthini
Genus: Phyllophaga
Subgenera: P. (Chirodines) – P. (Chlaenobia) – P. (Cnemarachis) – P. (Listrochelus) – P. (Phyllophaga) – P. (Phytalus) – P. (Tostegoptera) – P. (Triodonyx)

Species (877 + 4†):
A

P. abcea – P. abdominalis – P. abudantuni – P. acacoyahuana – P. acapulca – P. acatlanensis – P. aceitillar – P. acinosa – P. acunai – P. adjuntas – P. adoretoides – P. aegrotus – P. aemula – P. aenea – P. aeneotincta – P. aequalis – P. aequata – P. aequatorialis – P. aeruginosa – P. affabilis – P. afflicta – P. aguadita – P. ahlbrandti – P. alayoi – P. albina – P. alcoa – P. aliada – P. aliciae – P. almada – P. alquizara – P. alvareztoroi – P. amazonica – P. analis – P. andersoni – P. androw – P. angulicollis – P. angusta – P. anolaminata – P. anomaloides – P. antennalis – P. antiguae – P. anxia – P. apicalis – P. apolinari – P. apolinaria – P. approxima – P. aragoni – P. arcta – P. ardara – P. arenicola – P. arizona – P. arkansana – P. arribans – P. arrowi – P. assmani – P. atra – P. atrata – P. atratoides – P. audanti – P. aurea – P. austera –
B

P. babicora – P. babis – P. bahiana – P. balacachiana – P. balia – P. balli – P. balsana – P. baneta – P. baoruco – P. baracoana – P. baraguensis – P. barda – P. baroni – P. barrerana – P. barroi – P. barrosa – P. batillifer – P. beameri – P. beckeri – P. benexonana – P. bicavifrons – P. bicolor – P. bilobatata – P. bilyi – P. bimaculata – P. bimammifrons – P. bipartita – P. blackwelderi – P. blanchardi – P. blanda – P. bobevelynorum – P. bolacoides – P. boliviensis – P. bonfils – P. boruca – P. bottimeri – P. bowditchi – P. brama – P. bretti – P. brevicornis – P. brevipilosa – P. brownella – P. bruneri – P. buapae – P. bucephala – P. bueta –
C

P. caanchaki – P. cahitana – P. calai – P. calceata – P. calderasa – P. callosiventris – P. cambeforti – P. campana – P. caneyensis – P. canipolea – P. canoa – P. canoana – P. capillata – P. caraga – P. cardini – P. carminator – P. carnegie – P. cartaba – P. castaniella – P. castineirasi – P. catemacoana – P. cavata – P. caviceps – P. cayennensis – P. caymanensis – P. cazahuata – P. cazieriana – P. centralis – P. certanca – P. chada – P. chalumeaui – P. chamacayoca – P. chamula – P. changuena – P. chapini – P. chiapas – P. chiapensis – P. chiblacana – P. chimoxtila – P. chippewa – P. chiriquina – P. chlaenobiana – P. choixiana – P. cholana – P. chortiana – P. ciliatipes – P. cinnamomea – P. citarae – P. ciudadensis – P. clavijeroi – P. clemens – P. clypeata – P. cneda – P. coahuayana – P. cochisa – P. colima – P. colimana – P. collaris – P. collaroides – P. columbiana – P. comaltepecana – P. cometes – P. complexipennis – P. conformis – P. congrua – P. conicariana – P. contaminata – P. coronadis – P. corrosa – P. costaricensis – P. costura – P. crassa – P. crassissima – P. crena – P. crenaticollis – P. crenonycha – P. crenulata – P. cribrosa – P. crinipennis – P. crinitissima – P. cristagalli – P. cristobala – P. cruces – P. cubana – P. cuicateca – P. culminata – P. cupuliformis – P. curialis – P. cushmani – P. cuyabana – P. cylindrica –
D

P. darlingtoni – P. dasypoda – P. davidsoni – P. davisi – P. debilis – P. delata – P. deleri – P. delplanquei – P. densata – P. densepunctata – P. densicollis – P. dentex – P. denticulata – P. dieteriana – P. diffinis – P. diminuta – P. disca – P. discalis – P. dispar – P. disparilis – P. dissimilis – P. divertens – P. dominicensis – P. drakii – P. dsaimana – P. dubitatus – P. duenas – P. dugesiana – P. dulcis – P. duncani – P. durango – P. durangoana – P. durangosa –
E

P. ecostata – P. ecuadorae – P. edrileyi – P. eladio – P. elegans – P. elenans – P. eligia – P. elizoria – P. elongata – P. emberae – P. emburyi – P. eniba – P. ephilida – P. epigaea – P. epulara – P. erota – P. errans – P. espina – P. esquinada – P. estacea – P. etabatesiana – P. euryaspis – P. exorata – P. expansa – P. explanicollis –
F

P. falcata – P. falsa – P. falta – P. farcta – P. favosa – P. ferrugata – P. ferruginea – P. ferupilis – P. fervida – P. fesina – P. fimbriata – P. fimbripes – P. fissilabris – P. flavidopilosa – P. flavipennis – P. floridana – P. foralita – P. forbesi – P. forcipata – P. forsteri – P. fossoria – P. foveicollis – P. foxii – P. fragilipennis – P. franciscana – P. fraterna – P. fraternaria – P. freeborni – P. fucata – P. fulvipennis – P. fulviventris – P. fusca – P. fuscipennis – P. futilis –
G

P. gaigei – P. galeanae – P. garrota – P. gastonguzmani – P. gaumeri – P. guanahacabibensis – P. gentryi – P. georgiana – P. ghentata – P. ginigra – P. glaberrima – P. glabricula – P. gloriae – P. godwini – P. gonzalffteri – P. gracilis – P. gracillima – P. gramma – P. grancha – P. granti – P. gravidula – P. grossepunctata – P. guanacasteca – P. guanicana – P. guapilana – P. guapiles – P. guapilesea – P. guapoloides – P. guatemala – P. guerrocans –
H

P. haagi – P. haitiensis – P. halffteriana – P. hamata – P. hardyi – P. hemilissa – P. herminiae – P. hernandezi – P. herrerana – P. heteroclita – P. heteronycha – P. hidalgoana – P. hintonella – P. hintoni – P. hirsuta – P. hirticollis – P. hirticula – P. hirtifrons – P. hirtiventris – P. hoegei – P. hoegella – P. hoffmanitae – P. hogardi – P. holguinensis – P. hondura – P. hondurasana – P. hoogstraali – P. hornii – P. howdeniana – P. howdenryi – P. huachuca – P. hubbelli – P. huiteaca – P. humboldtiana –
I

P. idonea – P. ignava – P. ilicis – P. imeldae – P. imitans – P. imitatrix – P. impar – P. implicita – P. impressipyga – P. imprima – P. incuria – P. independentista – P. inepta – P. infidelis – P. inflativentris – P. inflexa – P. instabilis – P. insulaepinorum – P. insulana – P. insularis – P. integra – P. integriceps – P. inversa – P. invisa – P. irazuana – P. isabellae – P. itsmica – P. iviei – P. izabalana – P. izucarana –
J

P. jalisciensis – P. jamaicana – P. janzeniana – P. jaragua – P. jaronua – P. javepacuana – P. jeanmathieui – P. jiminezi – P. jorgevaldezi – P. josepalaciosi – P. jovelana – P. joyana – P. jumberea – P. juquilana – P. juvenilis –
K

P. karlsioei – P. kayaumariana – P. kenscoffi – P. kentuckiana – P. knausi – P. knochi – P. koehleriana – P. kohlmanniana – P. kulzeri – P. kuntzeni –
L

P. laboriosa – P. labrata – P. lacroixi – P. laevigata – P. laminata – P. lanata – P. lanceolata – P. lanepta – P. laportei – P. larimar – P. latefissa – P. latens – P. latidens – P. latifrons – P. latipes – P. latiungula – P. lebasii – P. lempira – P. leonilae – P. leonina – P. leporina – P. leprieuri – P. leptospica – P. lineata – P. lineatoides – P. linharesensis – P. lobata – P. lodingi – P. longicornis – P. longifoliata – P. longispina – P. longitarsa – P. lorencita – P. lota – P. loxichana – P. luctuosa – P. luginbilli – P. lulaana – P. luridipennis –
M

P. macasana – P. macgregori – P. macmurryi – P. macrocera – P. macrophylla – P. maculicollis – P. maestrensis – P. magnicornis – P. mali – P. manantleca – P. manaosana – P. manchesterea – P. mandevillea – P. manibota – P. marcano – P. marcapatana – P. marginalis – P. mariaegalante – P. mariana – P. marilucasana – P. marina – P. martiana – P. martincampoi – P. martinezi – P. martinezpalaciosi – P. matacapana – P. maxima – P. meadei – P. mella – P. menetriesi – P. mentalis – P. mesophylla – P. mexicana – P. micans – P. michelbacheri – P. microcerus – P. microchaeta – P. microphylla – P. micros – P. microsoma – P. migratoria – P. mimicana – P. minutissima – P. miraflora – P. mitlana – P. moei – P. molopia – P. monana – P. monrosi – P. monstrosa – P. montserratensis – P. morganella – P. morgani – P. moseri – P. mucorea – P. munizi – P. murina – P. muwieriana –
N

P. nahui – P. nandalumia – P. naranjina – P. nasalis – P. navassa – P. navidad – P. nebulosa – P. necaxa – P. neglecta – P. neomexicana – P. nepida – P. nevermannea – P. nevermanni – P. nevomeana – P. nigerrima – P. nigrita – P. nigropicea – P. niquirana – P. nisuens – P. nitida – P. nitidicauda – P. nitidicollis – P. nitididorsis – P. nogales – P. nogueirana – P. nosa – P. nubipennis – P. nuda – P. nudipennis – P. nunezi –
O

P. oaxaca – P. oaxena – P. obliquestriata – P. oblongula – P. obsoleta – P. ocozocuana – P. odomi – P. ohausi – P. okeechobea – P. omani – P. ome – P. omiltemia – P. onchophora – P. onita – P. onoreana – P. opaca – P. opacicollis – P. orosina – P. ortizi – P. ovalis –
P

P. pachuca – P. pachypyga – P. pallida – P. pallidicornis – P. pameana – P. panamana – P. panamensis – P. panicula – P. panorpa – P. papaloana – P. paraguayana – P. paraguayensis – P. parallela – P. parcesetifera – P. parilis – P. parumpunctata – P. parvicornis – P. parvidens – P. parvisetis – P. pastassana – P. paternoi – P. patruelis – P. patrueloides – P. pauli – P. pauliani – P. pauloensis – P. pearliae – P. peccata – P. pectoralis – P. pedernales – P. penaella – P. peninsulana – P. peninsularis – P. pentaphylla – P. perfidia – P. perlonga – P. permagna – P. persimilis – P. personata – P. peruana – P. picadoana – P. picea – P. piceola – P. picipennis – P. pilidorsis – P. piligera – P. piliventris – P. pilosipes – P. pilositarsis – P. pilosula – P. pilotoensis – P. pilula – P. pinophilus – P. plaei – P. plairi – P. planeta – P. platti – P. platyrhina – P. plena – P. pleroma – P. poculifer – P. pokornyiana – P. polita – P. polyphylla – P. postrema – P. poterillosa – P. potosisalta – P. potrerillo – P. praesidii – P. praetermissa – P. probaporra – P. profunda – P. prolixa – P. propinqua – P. pruinipennis – P. pruinosa – P. prunina – P. prununculina – P. pseudoatra – P. pseudocalcaris – P. pseudocarus – P. pseudofloridana – P. pseudomicans – P. psiloptera – P. puberea – P. puberula – P. pubescens – P. pubicauda – P. pubicollis – P. pudorosa – P. pulcher – P. punctipennis – P. punctulata – P. punctuliceps – P. punctulicollis – P. puntarenosa – P. pusillidens –
Q

P. quadriphylla – P. quercus – P. quetzala – P. quetzaloides – P. quiana – P. quituana –
R

P. rafaelamothei – P. rangelana – P. ratcliffeiana – P. ravida – P. rawlinsi – P. raydoma – P. recorta – P. reevesi – P. regiomontana – P. reinhardi – P. renodis – P. reticulata – P. reventazona – P. rex – P. reyescastilloi – P. reyesiana – P. reyesolivasi – P. riverana – P. riviera – P. roberterroni – P. rodriguezi – P. rolbakeri – P. rolstoni – P. romana – P. rorida – P. rorulenta – P. roscida – P. rossi – P. rostrypyga – P. rubiginosa – P. rubricosa – P. ruficollis – P. rufipes – P. rufithorax – P. rufiventris – P. rufotestacea – P. rugicollis – P. rugithorax – P. rugosa – P. rugulosa – P. rustica – P. rzedowskiana –
S

P. sabanalamarensis – P. sacoma – P. saginata – P. sahagundinoi – P. saltana – P. sanbarthensis – P. sanctipauli – P. sandersoni – P. sandersoniana – P. sandersoniella – P. sanjosicola – P. santachloe – P. santaclarae – P. santiagozai – P. santiaguensis – P. sarlacca – P. saylori – P. sayloriana – P. scabrifrons – P. scabripyga – P. scaramuzzai – P. schaefferi – P. schenklingi – P. schizorhina – P. schizorhinoides – P. schneblei – P. schusteriana – P. schwarzi – P. scissa – P. scitula – P. scoparia – P. scuticeps – P. secessicola – P. segregans – P. senex – P. senicula – P. sequoiana – P. sericata – P. serrana – P. serratipes – P. sibonyensis – P. signaticollis – P. sinaloana – P. sinicollis – P. sinuaticeps – P. skelleyi – P. smithi – P. snowi – P. sociata – P. soctona – P. sodialis – P. solanophaga – P. solavegana – P. solisiana – P. sonora – P. soror – P. spaethi – P. speculifera – P. spinicola – P. spinifemora – P. spinitarsis – P. spreta – P. squamifera – P. squamipilosa – P. stehlei – P. stipitalis – P. stohleri – P. straminea – P. sturmi – P. stzotzilana – P. submetallica – P. submucida – P. subnitida – P. subopaca – P. subpruinosa – P. subrugosa – P. subspinosa – P. subtonsa – P. suriana – P. suttonana – P. suturalis – P. sylvatica –
T

P. tajimaroana – P. talamancana – P. tamatziana – P. tancitara – P. tapantina – P. tarsalis – P. tascatensis – P. taxodii – P. tecta – P. tegenara – P. tegulicollis – P. tejupana – P. tejupilcas – P. temascalis – P. temascaltepeca – P. temaxa – P. temora – P. tenuipilis – P. teosinteophaga – P. tepanana – P. terezinae – P. terminalis – P. tesorito – P. tetracera – P. tetraphylla – P. texensis – P. thoracica – P. tilarana – P. timida – P. tlanchinolensis – P. tojolabala – P. toni – P. torta – P. totonis – P. totoreana – P. trichoderma – P. trichodes – P. tridens – P. tridilonycha – P. trinitariensis – P. triticophaga – P. trochanter – P. tsajumiana – P. tuberculifrons – P. tumulosa – P. tusa – P. tuxtleca – P. tzintzontliana –
U

P. ueiacayoca – P. ulkei – P. umbrosa – P. uniformis – P. uruguayana –
V

P. valia – P. vallendensis – P. vandinei – P. vandykei – P. varohiana – P. vazquezae – P. vehemens – P. velezangeli – P. venodiola – P. vermiculata – P. verruciventris – P. vestita – P. vexata – P. vicina – P. villaclarensis – P. villardoi – P. villifrons – P. violetae – P. vulpes –
W

P. wickhami – P. wittkugeli – P. wolcotti –
X

P. xalacoatepecana – P. xanthe – P. xanthocoma – P. xerophila – P. xkumuka –
Y

P. yaqui – P. yaxbitana – P. yei – P. yemasseei – P. yoloxana – P. youngi – P. yucana – P. yunqueana –
Z

P. zaragozana – P. zarcoana – P. zavalana – P. zayasi – P. zeteki – P. zunilensis – P. zunimarioi –

†P. avus – †P. disrupta – †P. extincta – †P. puerilis
Name

Phyllophaga Harris, 1827
Synonyms

Abcrana Saylor, 1942
Clemora Saylor, 1942
Endrosa LeConte, 1856
Eugastra LeConte, 1856
Gynnis LeConte, 1856
Lachnosterna Hope, 1837
Trichesthes Erichson, 1847

References

Template:Harris, 1827
Additional references

Morón, M.A. 2016. Two new species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae) from Jalisco and Hidalgo, Mexico. Dugesiana 23(1): 21–26. full article (PDF). Reference page.
Morón, M.-Á. & Woodruff, R.E. 2014. New species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from northeastern Mexico. Insecta mundi (0328) Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Vallejo E., L.F. & Wolff E., M. 2013. The genus Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the Colombian Andean Mountains. Zootaxa 3722(2): 101–142. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3722.2.1 Reference page.
Schnepp, K.E. 2022. A new species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Puerto Rico. Insecta Mundi 0914: 1–7. Full article (PDF). Reference page.
Serrano, A. & Morón, M.A. 2017. Four new species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from western Cuba. Zootaxa 4362(4): 575–583. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4362.4.6 Reference page.

Links

Schoolmeesters, P. 2017. Scarabs: World Scarabaeidae Database (version Jul 2016). In: Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., Nieukerken E. van, Zarucchi J., Penev L., eds. 2017. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 30th January 2017. Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col. Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858. Reference page. [accessed on March 1, 2017]

Phyllophaga is a very large genus (more than 900 species) of New World scarab beetles in the subfamily Melolonthinae. Common names for this genus and many other related genera in the subfamily Melolonthinae are May beetles, June bugs, and June beetles.[1][2] They range in size from 12 to 35 mm (0.47 to 1.38 in)[1][2] and are blackish or reddish-brown in colour, without prominent markings, and often rather hairy ventrally. These beetles are nocturnal, coming to lights in great numbers.

The generic name is derived from the Greek words phyllon (φυλλον), which means "leaf", and phagos (φαγος), which means "eater", with a plural ending.[2]
Contents

1 Lifecycle
2 Diet
3 Predators
4 See also
5 References
6 Further reading
7 External links

Lifecycle

The lifecycle takes about one year. Females lay 60 to 75 eggs over a period of about two weeks in midsummer. The white egg at first is elliptical (1.5 mm by 2.1 mm) but becomes more spherical as the larva inside develops. These hatch into white grubs about 18 days after laying. The newly hatched larvae are 8 mm long and grow to a length around 40 mm. Whitish with a brownish-black head, the grubs have conspicuous brown spiracles along the sides of their bodies. They molt twice before winter. The third larval stage lasts nearly nine months, after which they pupate. They hibernate overwinter as grubs that may become active on warm winter days. They increase their activity in the spring.
Diet

The adults are chafers, feeding on foliage of trees and shrubs. They may cause significant damage when emerging in large numbers. The larvae (called white grubs) feed on the roots of grasses and other plants.
Hairy June Bug found in Ohio, USA

Adult chafers eat the leaves and flowers of many deciduous trees, shrubs, and other plants. However, white grubs (reaching 40–45 mm long when full grown) live in the soil and feed on plant roots, especially those of grasses and cereals, and are occasional pests in pastures, nurseries, gardens, and golf courses. An obvious indication of infestation is the presence of birds, such as crows, peeling back the grass to get to the grubs. The injury consists of poorly growing patches that quickly turn brown in dry weather. The grubs can be found immediately below the surface, usually lying in a characteristic comma-like position.[3]

The grubs sometimes attack vegetables and other garden plants, e.g. lettuce, raspberries, strawberries, potatoes, and young ornamental trees. Injury to the roots and rootstock causes small saplings and tender tap-rooted plants like lettuce to wilt suddenly or to show stunted growth and a tendency to shed leaves prematurely. Plants growing in rows are usually attacked in succession as the grubs move along from one plant to the next. Chafer grubs feed below ground for 3–4 years before changing into adult beetles.[3]
Predators

Some Pyrgotidae flies pursue the beetles in flight to lay an egg on the beetle's back under the elytra where the beetle cannot reach it. The egg hatches and the fly larva enters the body cavity of the beetle, feeding on and eventually killing the host before pupating. A species of bee fly, Exoprosopa fasciata, is also a parasite of this genus. The larvae feed on the ground and pupate in the grub cell where they stay over the winter.[4] Wasps in numerous families, including Pelecinidae, Scoliidae, and Tiphiidae, are parasitoids of Phyllophaga grubs. A variety of amphibians, some small mammals, including skunks and moles, feed on the grubs.
See also

List of Phyllophaga species

References

enature. "May Beetles Cycle". Archived from the original on 2011-06-16. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
BugGuide. "Genus Phyllophaga - May Beetles - BugGuide.Net". Iowa State University. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
"June Beetle". Red Planet Inc. Retrieved 2013-12-23.

Hull, Frank (1973). Bee Flies of the World. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. Page 31. ISBN 0-87474-131-9.

Further reading

Dillon, Elizabeth S., and Dillon, Lawrence (1961). A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern North America. Evanston, Illinois: Row, Peterson, and Company.
Evans, Arthur W. Generic Guide to New World Scarabs—subfamily Melolonthinae
Haarstad, John A. Insects of Cedar Creek, Minnesota
Smith, A. B. T. (2003). Checklist of the Scarabaeoidea of the Nearctic Realm. Version 3. Electronically published, Lincoln, Nebraska. 74 pp, available here.
White, Richard E. (1998). Beetles: A Field Guide to the Beetles of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-91089-7.

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