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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Pyraloidea
Familiae (2): CrambidaePyralidae

Name

Pyraloidea Latreille, 1809.
References

Latreille, P.A. 1809. Genera crustaceorum et insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata. Tomus quartus et ultimus. Parisiis: A. Koenig, 399 pp. BHL Reference page.
van Nieukerken, E.J., Kaila, L., Kitching, I.J., Kristensen, N.P., Lees, D.C., Minet, J., Mitter, C., Mutanen, M., Regier, J.C., Simonsen, T.J., Wahlberg, N., Yen, S-H., Zahiri, R., Adamski, D., Baixeras, J., Bartsch, D., Bengtsson, B.A., Brown, J.W., Bucheli, S.R., Davis, D.R., de Prins, J., de Prins, W., Epstein, M.C., Gentili-Poole, P., Gielis, C., Hättenschwiler, P., Hausmann, A., Holloway, J.D., Kallies, A., Karsholt, O., Kawahara, A.Y., Koster, S., Kozlov, M.V., Lafontaine, J.D., Lamas, G., Landry, J-F., Lee, S., Nuss, M., Park, K-T., Penz, C.M., Rota, J., Schintlmeister, A., Schmidt, B.C., Sohn, J-C., Solis, M.A., Tarmann, G.M., Warren, A.D., Weller, S., Yaklovlev, R.V., Zolotuhin, V.V. & Zwick, A. 2011. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. Pp 212–221 In:
Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page PDF. Reference page.
Poltavsky, A.N., Kravchenko, V., Traore, M.M., Traore, S.F., Gergely, P., Witt, T.J., Sulak, H., Beck, R.H-T., Junnila, A., Revay, E.E., Doumbia, S., Beier, J.C. & Müller, G.C. 2018. The Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera) fauna of the woody savannah belt in Mali, West Africa. Zootaxa 4457(1): 39–69. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4457.1.2 Paywall Reference page.
Scholtens, B. & Solis, M.A. 2015. Annotated check list of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera) of America North of Mexico. Zookeys 535: 1-136. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.535.6086 Full article Reference page.

Vernacular names
català: Piraloïdeu
Deutsch: Zünslerfalter
English: Pyraloid moths
فارسی: دوروزنه‌ای‌های پیرالویدا
suomi: Koisaperhosmaiset
日本語: メイガ上科
한국어: 명나방상과
中文: 螟蛾總科

The Pyraloidea (pyraloid moths or snout moths) are a moth superfamily containing about 16,000 described species worldwide, and probably at least as many more remain to be described.[2] They are generally fairly small moths, and as such, they have been traditionally associated with the paraphyletic Microlepidoptera.

This superfamily used to contain the Hyblaeidae, Thyrididae, Alucitidae (plus Tineodidae), Pterophoridae, and Pyralidae. The first four families are now each split off as a distinct superfamily.

Nowadays, Pyralidae are usually split into the Pyralidae sensu stricto and the Crambidae, as both groups have been shown to be monophyletic and a sister group.[3][4]

Some genera (e.g. Micronix and Tanaobela) still defy easy classification and have been variously assigned to the Crambidae or the Pyralidae.

Among all Lepidoptera, pyraloids show the most diverse life history adaptations. The larvae of most species feed on living plants either internally or externally as leaf rollers, leaf webbers leaf miners, borers, root feeders, and seed feeders. Some species live parasitically in ant nests (Wurthiini), prey on scale insects (certain Phycitinae), or live in the nests of bees (Galleriinae). The larvae of the Acentropinae are adapted to life under water, and certain Phycitinae and Pyralinae are adapted to very dry environments and their larvae feed on stored food products. Others feed on animal detritus such as carrion and feces.

With such a variety of living habits, pyraloids are used in biodiversity studies.[5] Some species are of economic importance, e.g.:

rice stem borers (Chilo spp.; Scirpophaga spp.)
sod grass webworms (different species of Crambinae)
Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella)
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)
Indo-Australian coconut spike moth (Tirathaba rufivena)
Cacao moth (Ephestia elutella)
Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella)
wax moths (Achroia grisella, Galleria mellonella)
rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica)
beet webworm (Spoladea recurvalis)
European pepper moth (Duponchelia fovealis)
legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata)
eggplant fruit borers (Leucinodes spp.).

References

Nuss, Matthias; Landry, Bernard; Mally, Richard; Vegliante, Francesca; Tränkner, Andreas; Bauer, Franziska; Hayden, James; Segerer, Andreas; Schouten, Rob; Li, Houhun; Trofimova, Tatiana; Solis, M. Alma; De Prins, Jurate; Speidel, Wolfgang (2003–2020). "Global Information System on Pyraloidea (GlobIZ)". www.pyraloidea.org. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
Munroe, Eugene G.; Solis, Maria Alma (1998). "The Pyraloidea". In Kristensen, Niels Peder (ed.). Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, systematics, and biogeography. Handbook of Zoology. Insecta, Part, Volume IV Arthropoda 35. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 233–256.
Minet, Joël (1982). "Les Pyraloidea et leurs principales divisions systématiques" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France (in French). 86 (9–10): 262–280.
Regier, Jerome C.; Mitter, Charles; Solis, M. Alma; Hayden, James E.; Landry, Bernard; Nuss, Matthias; Simonsen, Thomas J.; Yen, Shen-Horn; Zwick, Andreas; Cummings, Michael P. (2012). "A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification". Systematic Entomology. 37 (4): 635–656. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00641.x. S2CID 86208636.
Schulze, Christian H; Fiedler, Konrad (2003). "Vertical and temporal diversity of a species rich moth taxon in Borneo". In Basset, Yves; Novotny, Vojtech; Miller, Scott E.; Kitching, R. L. (eds.). Arthropods of tropical forests. Spatio-temporal resource use in the canopy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 69–88. ISBN 9780521820004.

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