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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Hesperiidae
Subfamilia: Pyrginae
Tribus (4): AchylodidiniCarcharodiniErynniniPyrgini

Name

Pyrginae Burmeister, 1878: 245.
References
Primary references

Burmeister, H. 1878. Description physique de la République Argentine... Vol. 5: Lépidoptères (1). Paris & Buenos Aires, vi+524pp, 24 pls. BHL Reference page.
Evans, W.H. 1949. A catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia and Australia in the British Museum (Natural History). xix+502pp., 53 pls. BMNH, London. Reference page.

Additional references

Ackery, P.R., de Jong, R. & Vane-Wright, R.I. 1999. The Butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea. in Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4(35): 263–300 (ed. N.P. Kristensen). Berlin: de Gruyter. Reference page.
Austin, G.T. 2008. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Taxonomic comments on "night" skippers, with descriptions of new genera and species (Lepidoptera: Eudaminae). Insecta Mundi 29: 1–36. PDF. Reference page.
Austin, G.T. 2008. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: a new genus and species of Carcharodini (Pyrginae). Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 158: 1–7. Reference page.
Bell, E.L. 1956. Descriptions of some new species of neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1778: 1–13. PDF.Reference page.
Devyatkin, A.L. 2001. Hesperiidae of Vietnam, 9. Three new species and one new subspecies from the subfamily Pyrginae (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Atalanta 32(3/4): 403–410. Reference page.
Grishin, N.V. 2012. Uncus shaped akin to elephant tusks defines a new genus for two very different-in-appearance Neotropical skippers (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 45: 101–112. Reference page.
Hayward, K.J., 1948. Genera et Species Animalium Argentinorum. Vol. 1. Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyrrhopyginae et Pyrginae. Buenos Aires. G. Kraft Ltd. 389pp, 27pls. Reference page.
Lamas, G. 2004. (ed.) Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. In Heppner, J.B. (ed.) Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Vol.5A, Pt.4A. Assn. for Tropical Lepidoptera/Scientific Publishers, Gainesville. 439pp. Reference page.
Li, W., Cong. Q., Shen, J.H., Zhang, J., Hallwachs, W., Janzen, D.H. & Grishin, N.V. 2019. Genomes of skipper butterflies reveal extensive convergence of wing patterns. PNAS 116(13): 6232–6237. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821304116. Text. SI Appendix. Reference page.
Miller, L.D. 1971. Descriptions of new species and notes on other Hesperiidae of Africa. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 2: 1–17. Full article (PDF). Reference page.
Maruyama, K. & J. Uehara, 2008. Two new species and one new subspecies of Pyrginae (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) from Sumatra and Laos. Lepidoptera Science 59(4): 285-290. Reference page.
Sahoo, R.K., Warren, A.D., Wahlberg, N., Brower, A.V.Z., Lukhtanov, V.A. & Kodandaramaiah, U. 2016. Ten genes and two topologies: an exploration of higher relationships in skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae). PeerJ 4: e2653. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2653 Reference page.
Steinhauser, S.R., 1989. Taxonomic notes and descriptions of new taxa in the neotropical Hesperiidae. Part I. Pyrginae. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 127: 1–70. Reference page.
Toussaint, E.F.A., Breinholt, J.W., Earl, C., Warren, A.D., Brower, A.V.Z., Yago, M., Dexter, K.M., Espeland, M., Pierce, N.E., Lohman, D.J. & Kawahara, A.Y. 2018. Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 101. DOI: 10.1186/s12862-018-1216-z Reference page.
Warren, A.D., Ogawa, J.R. & Brower, A.V.Z. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24(5): 642–676. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00218.x PDF Reference page.
Warren, A.D., Ogawa, J.R. & Brower, A.V.Z. 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic entomology 34(3): 467–523. Reference page.
Zhang, J., Cong. Q., Shen, J.H., Brockmann, E. & Grishin, N.V. 2019. Three new subfamilies of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). ZooKeys 861: 91–105. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.861.34686 Reference page.

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Vernacular names
日本語: チャマダラセセリ亜科

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