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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Hesperiidae
Subfamilia: Pyrrhopyginae
Tribus: Azonaxini – Jerini – Oxynetrini – Passovini – Pyrrhopygini – Zoniini
Name

Pyrrhopyginae Mabille, 1877: 161.
Synonyms

Pyrrhopygini Mabille, 1877 sensu Warren et al., 2008: 14; Warren et al., 2009; Toussaint et al., 2018.

References
Primary references

Hayward, K.J., 1948. Genera et Species Animalium Argentinorum. Vol. 1. Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyrrhopyginae et Pyrginae. Buenos Aires. G. Kraft Ltd. 389pp, 27pls. Reference page.
Mabille, P. 1877. Descriptions de Lépidoptères nouveaux du groupe des Hespérides. Petites Nouvelles Entomologiques 2(167): 114; 2(179): 161–162. Reference page.
Warren, A.D., Ogawa, J.R. & Brower, A.V.Z. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24(5): 642–676. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00218.x PDF Reference page.

Additional references

Ackery, P.R., de Jong, R. & Vane-Wright, R.I. 1999. The Butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea. in Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4(35): 263–300 (ed. N.P. Kristensen). Berlin: de Gruyter. Reference page.
Bell, E.L. 1933. Studies in the Pyrrhopyginae, With Descriptions of New Species. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 41: 265–295; 481–510; 42: 393–421. Reference page.
Evans, W.H. 1951–55. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae in the British Museum. Pt.1 (1951): x+92pp, pls.1–9; Pt.2 (1952): v.+178pp, pls.10–25; Pt.3 (1953): v+246pp, pls.26–53; Pt.4 (1955): v+499pp, pls. 54–88. Reference page.
Lamas, G. 2004. (ed.) Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. In Heppner, J.B. (ed.) Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Vol.5A, Pt.4A. Assn. for Tropical Lepidoptera/Scientific Publishers, Gainesville. 439pp. Reference page.
Li, W., Cong. Q., Shen, J.H., Zhang, J., Hallwachs, W., Janzen, D.H. & Grishin, N.V. 2019. Genomes of skipper butterflies reveal extensive convergence of wing patterns. PNAS 116(13): 6232–6237. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821304116. Text. SI Appendix. Reference page.
Mielke, O. 1994. Revisão de Elbella Evans e gêneros afins (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 11: 395–586. PDF Reference page.
Mielke, O.H.H. 2001. Estudo cladístico e descrições de tribos em Pyrrhopyginae (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 18(3): 897–905. PDF. Reference page.
Mielke, O.H.H. 2002. Pyrrhopyginae: gêneros novos e revalidados (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19(1): 217–228. PDF. Reference page.
Toussaint, E.F.A., Breinholt, J.W., Earl, C., Warren, A.D., Brower, A.V.Z., Yago, M., Dexter, K.M., Espeland, M., Pierce, N.E., Lohman, D.J. & Kawahara, A.Y. 2018. Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 101. DOI: 10.1186/s12862-018-1216-z Reference page.
Warren, A.D., Ogawa, J.R. & Brower, A.V.Z. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24(5): 642–676. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00218.x PDF Reference page.
Warren, A.D., Ogawa, J.R. & Brower, A.V.Z. 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic entomology 34(3): 467–523. Reference page.
Zhang, J., Cong. Q., Shen, J.H., Brockmann, E. & Grishin, N.V. 2019. Genomes reveal drastic and recurrent phenotypic divergence in firetip skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae: Pyrrhopyginae). Proc. R. Soc. B 286: 20190609. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0609. Appendix. Reference page.
Zhang, J., Cong. Q., Shen, J.H., Brockmann, E. & Grishin, N.V. 2019. Three new subfamilies of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). ZooKeys 861: 91–105. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.861.34686 Reference page.

Links

Butterfly Net International, Higher Classification of Hesperiidae

Firetips or firetail skippers are the tribe Pyrrhopygini of the skipper butterflies (family Hesperiidae). The roughly 150 species are found only in the Neotropics, with the exception of one species which just reaches into the United States. Their common names refer to the red tuft at the end of the abdomen of many Pyrrhopygini.[1]

They were formerly treated as distinct subfamily Pyrrhopyginae. But they actually belong to the large and diverse spread-winged skipper subfamily (Pyrginae), as the pyrgine tribe Tagiadini is their closest living relative.[1]
Subtribes

Of the four recognized subtribes of firetail skippers, one (the Zoniina) is monotypic, containing only the species Zonia zonia. The subtribes are:

Oxynetrina
Passovina
Pyrrhopygina
Zoniina

Footnotes

Brower (2007)

References

Brower, Andrew V.Z (2007): Tree of Life Web Project – Pyrrhopygini. Version of 2007-MAR-04. Retrieved 2009-DEC-24.

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