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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Antliophora
Ordo: Diptera
Subordo: Brachycera
Infraordo: Asilomorpha
Superfamilia: Empidoidea
Family: Ragadidae
Subfamily: Iteaphilinae - Ragadinae
Name

Ragadidae Sinclair, 2016
References
Primary references

Sinclair, B.J. 2016. Revision of the Australian species of Hydropeza Sinclair (Diptera: Empididae: Ragadinae subfam. nov.). Records of the Australian Museum 68: 1-22. Reference page.

Additional references

Ragadidae is a family of true flies in the superfamily Empidoidea. It was formerly considered a lower taxon, but was published as a new subfamily within Empididae in 2016.[1] Since then, it has been classified as the sister group to Empididae, and has been elevated to family level based on the genetic differences which separate it from Empididae.[2]

Description
Photograph of right wing of a species within Ragadidae, Ragas unica

Ragadidae are similar to Empididae and Atelestidae in the sense that their genitalia have symmetrical and straight terminalia. In their wings, the point of origin of the Rs vein is located at a distance from the humeral crossvein (h) as long as, or longer than, h. There is also a circumambient costa in the wing, which distinguishes Ragadidae from Atelestidae. Furthermore, the prosternum being separated from the proepisternum sets Ragadidae aside from Empididae—this is true for all except one genera (Hydropeza spp.), which can instead be characterized through its recurved labrum. In Empididae, this labrum is straight.[2]
Systematics

Ragadidae consists of two subfamilies, Iteaphilinae and Ragadinae, in which 7 genera are included in total: Dipsomyia, Hormopeza, Hydropeza, Ragas, Zanclotus, Anthepiscopus and Iteaphila.

Based on the most recent phylogenetic studies,[2] the relationship between Ragadidae and other members of Empidoidea is as follows. The placement of Ragadidae is emphasized in bold formatting.

Atelestidae

Atelestinae

Nemedininae

Hybotidae

Bicellariinae

Hybotinae

Oedaleinae

Ocydromiinae

Trichininae

Tachydromiinae

Tachydromiini

Symballaphthalmini

Drapetini

Dolichopodidae

Ragadidae

Iteaphilinae

Ragadinae

Empididae

Clinocerinae

Brachystomatinae

Brachystomatini

Ceratomerini

Trichopezini

Empidinae

Chelipodini

Empidini

Hemerodromiini

Hilarini



Footnotes

Sinclair (2016)

Wahlberg & Johanson (2018)

References

Sinclair, B. J. (2016): Revision of the Australian species of Hydropeza Sinclair (Diptera: Empididae: Ragadinae subfam. nov.). Records of the Australian Museum 68: 1–22. doi:10.3853/j.2201-4349.68.2016.1657
Wahlberg, E. & Johanson, K.A. (2018): Molecular phylogenetics reveals novel relationships within Empidoidea (Diptera). Systematic Entomology 43(4): 619–636. doi:10.1111/syen.12297

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Biology Encyclopedia

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