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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Lycaenidae
Subfamilia: Theclinae
Tribe: Deudorigini
Genus: Rapala
Species: R. aquamarina – R. arata – R. arbaimuni – R. bomiensis – R. caerulea – R. caerulescens – R. cassidyi – R. catena – R. christopheri – R. cowani – R. cyrhestica – R. damona – R. dieneces – R. dioetas – R. diopites – R. domitia – R. duma – R. elcia – R. enipeus – R. extensa – R. hades – R. hinomaru – R. iarbus – R. lankana – R. manea – R. masara – R. melida – R. micans – R. mikaae – R. nemorensis – R. nissa – R. persephone – R. pheretima – R. rectivitta – R. repercussa – R. rhoda – R. rhodopis – R. rhoecus – R. ribbei – R. rosacea – R. rubida – R. scintilla – R. selira – R. suffusa – R. takasagonis – R. tara – R. tomokoae – R. varuna – R. zamona
Name

Rapala Moore, 1881.

Type Species: Thecla varuna Horsfield, [1829]: 91, by original designation.
Synonymy

Hysudra Moore, 1881
Baspa Moore, 1882
Bidapsa Moore, 1882
Nadisepa Moore, 1882
Vadebra Moore, [1884]. Preoccupied by Vadebra Moore, 1883, Lepidoptera, Danaiidae. TS Deudorix petosiris Hewitson, [1863].
Atara Zhdanko, 1996

References

Corbet, A. S., 1939. A revision of the Malayan species of Rapala Moore (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)8(6): 103–112, fig. 1-20a. Reference page.
Corbet, A. S., 1940. The identity of the Fabrician species Papilio sphinx and Papilio hylax. Entomologist 73: 275. Reference page.
Hemming, A. F., 1967. The generic names of the butterflies and their type species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967, Suppl. 9: 1-509.Reference page.
Hayashi, H., Schröder, H.G. & Treadaway, C. G., 1978. New species of Rapala and Sinthusa from Mindanao (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tyô-to-Ga 29(5): 215-219. Reference page.
Horsfield, T. 1828–1829. A descriptive catalogue of the lepidopterous insects in the museum of the Honourable East India Company. 144 pp., 8 pls. London. BHL text, plates. Reference page.
Khanh, H., 2011. A new species of the genus Rapala Moore, (1881) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from Vietnam. Butterflies (Teinopalpus) (58): 14–16.
Lee, C.-L., 1979: Some new species of Rhopalocera in China. V. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 4 (1): 35–38.
Matsumura, S., 1926. Some new and unrecorded Lycaenids-Species from Japan, Girca and Formosa. Ins. matsumur. 1(1): 23-31, pl 2. web. Reference page.
Moore, F. 1881-83. The Lepidoptera of Ceylon Vols. 1, 190pp, pls 1–71. 2, 162pp, pls 72–143. L. Reeve & Co., London. Reference page.
Moore, F., [1884]. Descriptions of new Asiatic diurnal Lepidoptera. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1883(4): 521–535, 2 pls. text, plates. Reference page.
Lane, D.A. & Müller, C.J., 2006. New species and subspecies of Rapala Moore and Deudorix Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from East Timor. Australian Entomologist 33(2): 93–102. Reference page.
Murayama, S. & Okamura, H., 1973. Butterflies of Luzon island in the Philippines, with descriptions of new species and sub-species. Tyô to Ga 24(1): 10-25., 48 figs. Reference page.
Parsons, M.J. 1998. The Butterflies of Papua New Guinea xvi+736pp., 136 pls. Academic Press, London, ISBN 0125455550. Reference page.
Robbins, R. K. & Lamas, G. 2002. Nomenclatural Changes in the Neotropical Eumaeini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae) Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 19 (Supl. 1): 197–214. PDF. Reference page.
Saito, K., 2011. A new species of the genus Rapala Moore, [1881], (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae), from Vietnam. Butterflies (Teinopalpus) 58: 14–16. Reference page.
Shinkai, A. & S. Morita, 1997. A new species of genus Rapala Moore, 1881 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Wallace 3: 37–40. Reference page.
Takanami, Y., 1989. On some type specimens of Lycaenidae from South East Asia. Tyô to Ga 40(1): 23-80. PDF. Reference page.
Takanami, Y., 1992. A new species of genus Rapala (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from Sumba, Indonesia. Tyô to Ga 43(2): 147-148. PDF. Reference page.
Takanami, Y., 1992. Notes on some species of the genus Rapala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from Sulawesi, with the description of a new species. Tyô to Ga 43(3): 193-202. PDF. Reference page.
Takanami, Y., 1998. Genus Rapala (Lycaenidae) of the Southeast Asian Islands. (in Japanese) Butterflies 19: 41-57, 6 plates. Reference page.
Vane-Wright, R.I. & de Jong, R. 2003. The butterflies of Sulawesi: annotated checklist for a critical island fauna. Zoologische Verhandelingen 343: 3–267, figs 1–14, pls 1–16. PDF Reference page.
Hayashi, H., 1984. New synonyms, new status, new combinations, new species and new subspecies of butterflies from the Philippines and Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Satyridae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae). IWASE 2: 9–20, ill. Reference page.
Treadaway, C.G. & Schröder, H.G. 2012. Revised checklist of the butterflies of the Philippine Islands (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 32 (Suppl. 20): 64pp. Reference page.
Zhdanko, A.B. 1996. New genera and species of blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from Asia. Selevinia 1994(2): 94–95. Reference page.

Rapala is a genus of butterflies in the tribe Deudorigini of the subfamily Theclinae of the family Lycaenidae. They are found throughout South Asia and Southeast Asia, with a few species extending to Australia and into the eastern Palaearctic region.

Males of Rapala are differentiated from other genera in the Deudorigini by their genitalia, with the conjoined valvae tapering evenly to rounded apices. The male secondary sexual characters also differ. In every species there is a brand above the origin of vein seven and lying wholly within space seven, clothed with very small scent scales, and nearly always there is an associated erectile hair tuft on the forewing dorsum beneath.

Almost all species exhibit sexual dimorphism in the colour of the upperside; normally the male is red, reddish brown or deep blue, while the female is dark brown or pale purple blue.
Selected species

Rapala arata (Bremer, 1861)
Rapala cassidyi
Rapala christopheri (Lane & Müller, 2006)
Rapala dioetas
Rapala diopites
Rapala iarbus
Rapala lankana
Rapala melampus
Rapala manea (Hewitson, [1863])
Rapala melida
Rapala nemorensis Oberthür, 1914
Rapala repercussa Leech, 1890
Rapala rhoecus
Rapala schistacea
Rapala scintilla
Rapala selira
Rapala sphinx
Rapala suffusa
Rapala tomokoae H. Hayashi, Schrőder & Treadaway, [1978]
Rapala varuna

References
External links

Images representing Rapala at Consortium for the Barcode of Life
"Rapala Moore, [1881]" at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

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