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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Cucujiformia
Superfamilia: Tenebrionoidea

Familia:Ripiphoridae
Subfamiliae (5): Hemirhipidiinae - Pelecotominae - Ptilophorinae - Ripidiinae - Ripiphorinae

Unknown subfamile

Archaeoripiphorus –
Overview of genera (39 + 4†)

Allocinops – Aporrhipis – Blattivorus – Clinopalpus – Clinops – Dunbrodianus – Elytroxystrotus – Euctenia – Falsorhipidius – Geoscopus – Hemirhipidius – Heteromeroxylon – Macrosiagon – Madrasiindus – Metoecus – Micropelecotoides – Neonephrites – Neorhipidius – Neorrhipidius – Nephrites – Paranephrites – Pararhipidius – Pelecotoma – Pirhidius – Pseudorhipidius – Pterydrias – Ptilophorus – Quasipirhidius – Quasirhipidius – Rhipidioides – Rhipidocyrtus – Rhipistena – Riekella – Ripidius – Ripiphorus – Setosicornia – Sharpides – Sitarida – Trigonodera – †Cretaceoripidius – †Olemehlia – †Paleoripiphorus – †Pauroripidius
Name

Ripiphoridae Gemminger & Harold, 1870 (1853)

Synonyms

Myoditini Costa, 1853
Rhipiphoridae Gemminger & Harold, 1870 (1853)

References

Argaman, Q.; Mendel, Z. 1988: Two new species of Rhipiphoridae (Insecta: Coleoptera) in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 16: 63.
Batelka, J. 2008: Family Ripiphoridae Gemminger & Harold, 1870. Pp. 29, 73–78 in: Löbl, I. & Smetana, A. (eds.) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, Volume 5. Tenebrionoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Batelka, J. 2010: A review of Ripiphoridae in the Arabian Peninsula (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 50: 157–166. ISSN: 0374-1036 Abstract
Csiki, E. 1913: Rhipiphoridae. Coleopterorum catalogus, 54: 1–29.
Falin, Z.H. 2002: 102. RIPIPHORIDAE Gemminger and Harold 1870 (1853). Pp. 431-444 in: Arnett, R.H., jr.; Thomas, M.C.; Skelley, P.E.; Frank, J.H. (eds.): American beetles. Volume 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida. limited preview on Google books
Gerstaecker, A. 1855: Rhipiphoridum Coleopterorum familiae dispositio systematica. Dissertatio Inauguralis Zoologica quam consensu et auctoritate amplissimi philosophorum ordinis in alma litterarum universitate Friderica Guilelma pro summis in philosophia honoribus rite capessendis die IV. M. Julii a MDCCCLV. Hora XII. Publice defendet auctor A. Gerstaecker, med. Dr. Berolinensis. Schlesinger, Berolini. url
Gerstaecker, A. 1855: Rhipiphoridum Coleopterorum familiae dispositio systematica. F. Nicolai, Berolini. Google books
Hatayama, T. 1985: Family Rhipiphoridae. Pp. 374-376 + plate 65 in: Kurosawa, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sasaji, H. (eds.) The Coleoptera of Japan in color, III. Tokyo, Hoikusha.
Jablokoff-Khnzorian, S.M. 1975: [Beetles of the family Rhipiphoridae (Coleoptera) from the fauna of the USSR. I.] Revue d’Entomologie de l’URSS, 54(4): 846–856. [in Russian] PDF
Kaupp, A.; Falin, Z.; Nagel, P. 2001: An annotated catalogue of fossil Ripiphoridae, taxonomic notes, and the description of a new genus and species from Baltic amber (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae: Ripidiinae). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg, 85: 165–195. PDF
Krell, F.-T. 1996: Ripiphoridae or Rhipiphoridae? (Coleoptera, Tenebrionoidea). Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 40: 47–48.
Lawrence, J.F.; Falin, Z.H.; Ślipiński, A. 2010: 11.8. Ripiphoridae Gemminger and Harold, 1870 (Gerstaecker, 1855). Pp. 538-548 in: Leschen, R.A.B.; Beutel, R.G.; Lawrence, J.F. (volume eds.) Coleoptera, beetles. Volume 2: Morphology and systematics (Elateroidea, Bostrichiformia, Cucujiformia partim). In: Kristensen, N.P. & Beutel, R.G. (eds.) Handbook of zoology. A natural history of the phyla of the animal kingdom. Volume IV. Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 38. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110190753 ISBN 9783110190755 DOI: 10.1515/9783110911213.538
I.Löbl & A.Smetana (eds). 2008 Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 5: Tenebrionoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark
ISBN 87-88757-84-6, p. 73
Selander, R.B. 1991: Rhipiphoridae (Tenebrionoidea). Pp. 509-512 in: Lawrence, J.F. (coordinator) Order Coleoptera, in: Stehr, F.W. (ed.) Immature insects, 2. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa, USA.
Švácha, P. 1994: Bionomics, behaviour and immature stages of Pelecotoma fennica (Paykull) (Coleoptera: Rhipiphoridae). Journal of natural history, 28: 585–618. DOI: 10.1080/00222939400770271

Links

Rhipiphoridae in SYNOPSIS OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF THE WORLD
Atlas of the family Ripiphoridae of Russia

Vernacular names
English: wedge-shaped beetles, antlered beetles
日本語: オオハナノミ科
polski: wachlarzykowate
русский: Веероносцы
中文: 大花蚤科

Ripiphoridae (formerly spelled Rhipiphoridae) is a cosmopolitan family of some 450 described species of beetles sometimes called "wedge-shaped beetles". Ripiphoridae are unusual among beetle families in that many species are hypermetamorphic parasitoids, an attribute that they share with the Meloidae. Members of the family differ in their choice of hosts, but most attack various species of bees or wasps, while some others attack cockroaches or beetles. Many species of Ripiphoridae have abbreviated elytra, and flabellate or pectinate antennae.

Biology

The subfamily Ripiphorinae parasitise bees and wasps (Hymenoptera), while Ripidiinae parasitises cockroaches (Blattodea) and Pelecotominae parasitises larvae of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera).[3]

Species that attack bees typically lay their eggs on flowers. There the eggs hatch almost immediately into small planidial larvae and lie in wait for a visiting host. The planidium mounts the bee and rides it back to the hive. There it dismounts and seeks a cell occupied by a host larva. The planidium then enters the body of the host. It changes its skin and shape, then remains more or less dormant until the host larva pupates. It then emerges from the bee pupa and begins to feed. It eats the entire pupa, then pupates in its turn and completes its metamorphosis before emerging from the hive to mate and lay eggs.[4][5]

In species that parasitise cockroaches, males are winged while the females are wingless and larviform. Both sexes of adults cannot feed due to reduced mouthparts. Adult females attract males using pheromones to mate, then lay eggs on the spot. The eggs hatch into larvae which attack cockroach nymphs. Upon maturity, the ripiphorid larva emerges from its host's last abdominal segments and pupates nearby.[6]

In species that attack wood-boring beetles, adults occur on dead trees or on dead parts of living trees. They mate and then the females lay eggs into wood using a long, stiff, needle-shaped ovipositor. Larvae hatch and actively search for host beetle larvae, able to survive for at least 10 days without finding a host. When a host is found, the ripiphorid larva pierces into it with the help of a narcotising substance it injects. It feeds within the host, then emerges and continues feeding as an ectoparasitoid. When development is complete, the larva acts as a wood-borer itself, creating an emergence gallery and pupating at the apical end of this gallery.[7]
Evolution

Fossil species in the genera Paleoripiphorus, Macrosiagon, Cretaceoripidius, Flabellotoma, Burmitoma, Plesiotoma, and Amberocula have been described from mid- to lower-Cretaceous amber from sites in France, Germany and Myanmar.[6][8][9][10]
Genera

Alloclinops Broun, 1921 g
Ancholaemus Gerstaecker, 1855 g
Blattivorus Chobaut, 1891 g
Clinopalpus Batelka, 2009 g
Clinops Gerstaecker, 1855 g
Elytroxystrotus Manfrini de Brewer, 1963
Euctenia Gerstaecker, 1855
Falsorhipidius Pic, 1947
Geoscopus Gerstaecker, 1855 g
Hemirhipidius Heller, 1920
Heteromeroxylon Pic, 1939
Ivierhipidius Barclay, 2015
Macrosiagon Hentz, 1830 i c g b
Metoecus Dejean, 1834 g
Micholaemus Viana, 1971 g
Micropelecotoides Pic, 1910
Neonephrites Riek, 1955
Neopauroripidius Falin & Engel, 2014 g
Neorhipidius Riek, 1955
Neorrhipidius Viana, 1958 g
Nephrites Shuckard, 1838
Paranephrites Riek, 1955
Pelecotoma Fischer, 1809 i c g b
Pirhidius Besuchet, 1957 b
Pseudorhipidius Chobaut, 1894
Pterydrias Reitter, 1895
Ptilophorus Dejean, 1834 i c g b
Quasipirhidius Zaragoza, 1992
Quasirhipidius Zaragoza, 1992 g
Rhipidioides Riek, 1955
Rhipidocyrtus Falin & Engel, 2014 g
Rhipistena Sharp, 1878 g
Riekella Selander, 1957
Ripidius Thunberg, 1806 i c g
Ripiphorus Bosc, 1791 i c g b
Scotoscopus Reitter, 1884 g
Sharpides Kirkaldy, 1910
Sitarida White, 1846
Trigonodera Dejean, 1834 i c g b
Zapotecotoma Engel, Falin, & Batelka, 2019 i c g b

Data sources: i = ITIS,[11] c = Catalogue of Life,[12] g = GBIF,[13] b = Bugguide.net[3]
Extinct genera

Subfamily Pelecotominae
†Burmitoma Batelka et al., 2018 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Flabellotoma Batelka et al., 2016 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Plesiotoma Batelka et al., 2018 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Samlandotoma Alekseev, 2019 Baltic amber, Russia, Eocene
†Spinotoma Hsiao & Huang, 2017 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
Subfamily Ripidiinae
†Olemehliella Batelka, 2017 Baltic amber, Russia, Eocene
†Pauroripidius Kaupp & Nagel, 2001 Baltic amber, Russia, Eocene
Tribe Ripidiini
†Amberocula Batelka et al., 2018 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Cretaceoripidius Falin & Engel, 2010 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Paleoripiphorus Perrichot et al., 2004 Charentese amber, France, Cenomanian Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Protoripidius Cai et al., 2018 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian

References

Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice (2018). "Case 3746 — Ripiphoridae Laporte, 1840 and Ripiphorus Bosc, 1791 (Insecta, Coleoptera): Proposed conservation of usage by designating Ripiphorus subdipterus Fabricius, 1792 as the type species of Ripiphorus and proposed ruling that Laporte (1840) used the type genus Ripiphorus in the sense defined B". The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 75: 36. doi:10.21805/bzn.v75.a010.
Not resolved
"Ripiphoridae Family Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-04-22.
Falin, Z.H. (2002). "102. Ripiphoridae. Gemminger and Harold 1870 (1853)". In Arnett, R.H. Jr.; Thomas, M.C.; Skelley, P.E.; Frank, J.H. (eds.). American beetles. Volume 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press LLC. pp. 431–444. doi:10.1201/9781420041231.ch6. ISBN 978-0-8493-0954-0.
Lawrence, J.F.; Falin, Z.H.; Ślipiński, A. (2010). "Ripiphoridae Gemminger and Harold, 1870 (Gerstaecker, 1855)". In Leschen, R.A.B.; Beutel, R.G.; Lawrence, J.F. (eds.). Coleoptera, beetles. Volume 2: Morphology and systematics (Elateroidea, Bostrichiformia, Cucujiformia partim). New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 538–548. doi:10.1515/9783110911213.538. ISBN 978-3110190755.
Batelka, Jan; Engel, Michael S.; Prokop, Jakub (2021). "The complete life cycle of a Cretaceous beetle parasitoid". Current Biology. 31 (3): R118–R119. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2020.12.007.
Švácha, P. (1994). "Bionomics, behaviour and immature stages of Pelecotoma fennica (Paykull) (Coleoptera: Rhipiphoridae)". Journal of Natural History. 28 (3): 585–618. doi:10.1080/00222939400770271. ISSN 0022-2933.
Perrichot V.; Nel A.; Neraudeau D. (2004). "Two new wedge-shaped beetles in Albo-Cenomanian ambers of France (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae: Ripiphorinae)" (PDF). European Journal of Entomology. 101 (4): 577–581. doi:10.14411/eje.2004.081.
Batelka, J; François-Marie Collomb & André Nel (2006). "Macrosiagon deuvei n. sp. (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae) from the French Eocene amber" (PDF). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 42 (1): 75–78. doi:10.1080/00379271.2006.10697451.
Batelka, J; MS Engel & J Prokop (2018). "A remarkable diversity of parasitoid beetles (Ripiphoridae) in Cretaceous amber, with a summary of the Mesozoic record of Tenebrionoidea". Cretaceous Research. 90 (1): 296–310. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.04.019.
"Ripiphoridae Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2018-04-22.
"Browse Ripiphoridae". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-04-22.
"Ripiphoridae". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-04-22.

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