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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Lycaenidae
Subfamilia: Theclinae
Tribus: Eumaeini
Genus: Thereus
Species: T. brocki – T. caltha – T. cithonius – T. columbicola – T. echinita – T. endera – T. enenia – T. eryssus – T. gabathana – T. genena – T. guianivaga – T. illex – T. ismarus – T. lausus – T. lomalarga – T. lutzi – T. molena – T. oppia – T. orasus – T. ortalus – T. pedusa – T. praxis – T. pseudarcula – T. tiasa – T. timoclea – T. wojtusiaki
Name

Thereus Hübner, [1819]: 78-79.

Type species: Papilio lausus Cramer, [1779]. images.
Synonymy

Molus Hübner, [1819]: 78.
Noreena Johnson, MacPherson & Ingraham, 1986: 2. TS: Noreena maria Johnson, MacPherson & Ingraham.
Solanorum Johnson, 1992: 199. TS: Solanorum gentilii Johnson, 1992: 200.
Timokla Johnson, Kruse & Kroenlein, 1997.
Pedusa D'Abrera, 2001: . TS: Thecla pedusa Hewitson.

References

Cramer, P. 1775–1780. De Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in der drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Afrika en America (etc). Amsterdam, Baalde & Utrecht, Parts 1–3. Pt.1 [1775]: xxx+16, 1–132, pls 1–84; [1776]: 133–156, pls 85–96; Pt.2 [1777]: 1–152, pls 97–192; Pt.3 [1779]: 1–104, pls 193–252; [1780]: 105–176, pls 253–288; Pt.4 [1780]: 1–246, pls 289–400. Reference page.
Hübner, J. 1819. Verzeichniß bekannter Schmettlinge 2–11: 17–176. BHL Reference page.
Johnson, K., MacPherson, B. & Ingraham, J., 1986. A new genus and species of Eumaeini (Theclinae) from western Argentina (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 102: 1–7, 2 figs. PDF. Reference page.
Johnson, K. 1992. Genera and species of the Neotropical 'elfin'-like hairstreak butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae. Theclinae). Rep. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Wis. (Stevens Point) 22(2): 136–279. ill. PDF. Reference page.
Johnson, Kruse & Kroenlein, 1997. The Macusiina, a new infratribe of the Eumaeini with description of the new genera (Lycaenidae). Revista de Theclinae colombianos 2(13): 1–39. Reference page.
Robbins, R.K., Heredia, M.D. & Busby, R.C. 2015. Male secondary sexual structures and the systematics of the Thereus oppia species group (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini). Zookeys 520: 109-130. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.520.10134 Full article Reference page.

Links

Butterflies of America

Thereus is a genus of gossamer-winged butterflies (family Lycaenidae). Among these, it belongs belong to the tribe Eumaeini of the subfamily Theclinae. These small butterflies occur essentially all over the Neotropics.[1]
Classification

Though this genus was first proposed long ago, for much of the time Thereus was included in the "wastebin genus" Thecla. However, the two genera are not particularly close relatives among their subfamily. In recent times, it has been proposed to remove several species from Thereus to smaller or even monotypic genera. While this might be warranted in some cases, it is not followed here pending more thorough study.[1]

The junior synonyms of Thereus are thus:[1]

Molus Hübner, [1819]
Noreena K.Johnson[verification needed], MacPherson & Ingraham, 1986
Pedusa D'Abrera, 2001 (may be nomen nudum)
Solanorum Johnson, 1992
Timokla Johnson[verification needed], Kruse & Kroenlein, 1997

Species

The following named species are placed in Thereus at present:[1]

Thereus brocki Robbins, Heredia & Busby, 2015
Thereus caltha (Druce, 1907)
Thereus cithonius (Godart, [1824]) (type species of Noreena)
Thereus columbicola (Strand, 1916)
Thereus endera (Hewitson, 1867)
Thereus enenia (Hewitson, 1867) (tentatively placed here)
Thereus eryssus (Herbst, 1800)
Thereus gabathana (Strand, 1918)
Thereus genena (Hewitson, 1867)
Thereus guianivaga (Johnson, 1989)
Thereus illex (Schaus, 1902)
Thereus ismarus (Cramer, [1777]) (type species of Molus)
Thereus lausus (Cramer, [1779])
Thereus lomalarga Robbins, Heredia & Busby, 2015
Thereus lutzi (Huntington, 1932)
Thereus molena (E. D. Jones, 1912)
Thereus oppia (Godman & Salvin, [1887])
Thereus orasus (Godman & Salvin, [1887])
Thereus ortalus (Godman & Salvin, [1887])
Thereus pedusa (Hewitson, 1867) (type species of "Pedusa")
Thereus praxis (Godman & Salvin, [1887])
Thereus pseudarcula (Giacomelli, 1914) (type species of Solanorum)
Thereus tiasa (Hewitson, 1869)
Thereus timoclea (Hewitson, 1870)
Thereus wojtusiaki Bálint, 2006

In addition, a number of as yet undescribed butterflies are suspected to belong here too:[1]

Thereus sp. 'Amazonia'
Thereus sp. 'Bahia'
Thereus sp. 'Guatemala'
Thereus sp. 'Ecuador 1'
Thereus sp. 'Ecuador 2'
Thereus sp. 'Panama 1'
Thereus sp. 'Panama 2'
?Thereus sp. 'Panama 3' (tentatively placed here)
Thereus sp. 'Peru'

Data related to Thereus at Wikispecies
Footnotes

See references in Savela (2011)

References

Savela, Markku. "Thereus Hübner, [1819]". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved September 30, 2019.

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