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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Ordo: †Titanoptera
Subordines: Gerarina - Mesotitanina
Overview of familiae

Geraridae - Gigatitanidae - Mesotitanidae - Paratitanidae
Name

†Titanoptera
References

Béthoux, O. 2007: Cladotypic taxonomy applied: titanopterans are orthopterans. Arthropod systematics & phylogeny, 65(2): 135–156. PDF
Gorochov, A.V. 2007: [The first representative of the suborder Mesotitanina from the Paleozoic and notes on the system and evolution of the order Titanoptera (Insecta: Polyneoptera).] Paleontologicheskii zhurnal, 41(6): 31–35. [in Russian, English translation in Paleontological journal, 41(6): 621–625]

Links

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Titanoptera. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary) in The Tree of Life Web Project

Vernacular names
日本語: オオバッタ目

Titanoptera is an extinct order of neopteran insects from late Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods.[1] Titanopterans were very large in comparison with modern insects, some having wingspans of up to 36 centimetres (14 in).[2]

They were related to modern grasshoppers, but were much larger, had proportionally weaker hindlegs that could not allow the animals to leap, and grasping forelegs and elongated mandibles. Another distinctive feature was the presence of prominent fluted regions on the forewings, which may have been used in stridulation. The general shape and anatomy of the Titanopterans suggests that they were predators.[2]

A recent examination of a fossil Theiatitan compared to modern insects seems to indicate they did not utilize stridulation, but used flashes of light from wing displays and crepitation, moving its wings to produce sound. The authors argue that none of the stridulation, crepitation, castanet signaling or light flash alone fully explains the diversity of structures observed in Titanoptera, and note that both sexes seem to have the fluted region on the forewing. Theiatian is 50 Ma older than the previous oldest Titanoptera, thus Theiatitan would be the oldest known insect with a wing structure specialized for communication.[3]

Some Titanopterans may have been able to only glide, not fly, such as Gigatitan vulgaris. The hind wing area of it is almost the same as that of Pseudophyllanax imperialis, one of the largest modern Orthoptera, and a poor flier, but Gigatitan is larger in volume. All known hind wings of Titanoptera, whatever their sizes, have quite reduced vannus, while most extant flying Orthoptera have large ones.[3]
Classification

Order Titanoptera

Family †Mesotitanidae
Genus †Deinotitan
Genus †Mesotitan
Genus †Mesotitanodes
Genus †Prototitan
Genus †Ultratitan
Family †Paratitanidae
Genus †Paratitan
Family †Gigatitanidae
Genus †Gigatitan
Genus †Nanotitan
Genus †Ootitan

References

Schubnel, Thomas; Legendre, Frédéric; Roques, Patrick; Garrouste, Romain; Cornette, Raphaël; Perreau, Michel; Perreau, Naïl; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Nel, André (2021-07-08). "Sound vs. light: wing-based communication in Carboniferous insects". Communications Biology. 4 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1038/s42003-021-02281-0. ISSN 2399-3642.
Hoell, H.V.; Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 322. ISBN 0-19-510033-6.
Schubnel, Thomas; Legendre, Frédéric; Roques, Patrick; Garrouste, Romain; Cornette, Raphaël; Perreau, Michel; Perreau, Naïl; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Nel, André (8 July 2021). "Sound vs. light: wing-based communication in Carboniferous insects". Communications Biology. 4 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1038/s42003-021-02281-0. ISSN 2399-3642. PMC 8266802.

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