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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Cladus: Odonatoptera
Cladus: Holodonata
Ordo: Odonata
Subordo: Epiprocta
Infraordo: Anisoptera
Superfamilia: Libelluloidea

Familia: Libellulidae
Subfamilia: Trithemistinae
Genus: Trithemis
Species: T. aconita – T. aenea – T. aequalis – T. africana – T. annulata – T. anomala – T. arteriosa – T. aurora – T. basitincta – T. bifida – T. bredoi – T. brydeni – T. congolica – T. dejouxi – T. dichroa – T. donaldsoni – T. dorsalis – T. ellenbeckii – T. festiva – T. fumosa – T. furva – T. grouti – T. hartwigi – T. hecate – T. imitata – T. jacksoni – T. kalula – T. kirbyi – T. lilacina – T. limbata – T. monardi – T. nigra – T. nuptialis – T. osvaldae – T. pallidinervis – T. persephone – T. pluvialis – T. pruinata – T. selika – T. stictica – T. werneri
Name
Trithemis Brauer, 1868

Trithemis is a genus of dragonflies in the family Libellulidae. They are commonly known as dropwings. There are over 40 species, mainly from Africa; two are endemic to Madagascar, and five can be found in Asia.[1] They are found in a wide variety of habitats; some species being adapted to permanent streams in forests, and others being capable of breeding in temporary pools in deserts.[2]
Species

The genus contains the following species:[3]

Male Female Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Trithemis aconita Lieftinck, 1969 monkshood dropwing,[4] halfshade dropwing[1] Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi
Trithemis aenea Pinhey, 1961 bronze dropwing[1] Western and Central Africa.
Trithemis aequalis Lieftinck, 1969 swamp dropwing[1] Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia.
Trithemis africana (Brauer, 1867) western phantom dropwing[5] Western and Central Africa, in Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d'Ivoire.
Trithemis annulata.jpg Trithemis annulata female (32441668485).jpg Trithemis annulata (Palisot de Beauvois, 1805) violet dropwing,[4][6] violet-marked darter[7] Africa, in the Middle East, in the Arabian Peninsula and southern Europe.
Trithemis anomala Pinhey, 1955 striped dropwing[1] Zambia
Trithemis arteriosa 2017 11 28 0874.jpg Trithemis arteriosa f.jpg Trithemis arteriosa (Burmeister, 1839) red-veined dropwing[4] Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tomé and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia,Zimbabwe, Crete, Cyprus, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestinian Territory, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
Crimson marsh glider, male @ Thrippunithura 03.jpg Crimson marsh glider, female @ Thrippunithura 01.jpg Trithemis aurora (Burmeister, 1839) crimson marsh glider[8] Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Trithemis basitincta Ris, 1912 Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone
Trithemis bifida Pinhey, 1970 shadow dropwing[1] Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Tanzania.
Trithemis bredoi Fraser, 1953 river dropwing[1] Gondokoro, Sudan
Trithemis brydeni Pinhey, 1970 percher-like dropwing[1] Botswana and Zambia.
Trithemis congolica Pinhey, 1970 Congo dropwing[1] Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon
Trithemis dejouxi.jpg Trithemis dejouxi Pinhey, 1978 stonewash dropwing[1] Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Central African Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Republic of Guinea
Trithemis dichroa Karsch, 1893 small dropwing,[9] black dropwing[1] Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia.
Trithemis donaldsoni Denim Dropwing.jpg Trithemis donaldsoni (Calvert, 1899) denim dropwing[4] Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Republic of South Africa, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Trithemis dorsalis 019563-1.jpg Trithemis dorsalis.jpg Trithemis dorsalis (Rambur, 1842) round-hook dropwing,[4] highland dropwing[1] Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, possibly Burundi, and possibly Malawi
Trithemis ellenbeckii Förster, 1906 Ethiopian dropwing[1] Ethiopia.
Trithemis festiva by kadavoor.jpg Trithemis festiva female 01.jpg Trithemis festiva (Rambur, 1842) indigo dropwing,[6] black stream glider[8] Greece, Cyprus and Turkey, throughout Asia to New Guinea
Trithemis fumosa Pinhey, 1962 Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon
T furva AManson 007631-1.jpg T furva AManson 011842-1.jpg Trithemis furva Karsch, 1899 navy dropwing[4] Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Trithemis grouti Pinhey, 1961 black dropwing,[10] dark dropwing[1] Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Zambia.
Trithemis hartwigi Pinhey, 1970 superb dropwing[1] Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea.
Trithemis hecate, female? (6993821499).jpg Trithemis hecate Ris, 1912 silhouette dropwing,[4] hecate dropwing[11] Botswana, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi.
Trithemis hinnula Dijkstra, Mézière & Kipping, 2015 mule dropwing[12] Gabon
Trithemis imitata Pinhey, 1961 copycat dropwing[1] Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda.
Trithemis integra Dijkstra, 2007 Albertine dropwing[1] Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Uganda
Trithemis kalula Kirby, 1900 pretty dropwing[1] Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinee-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Republic of Guinea, Sierra Leone
Trithemis kirbyi.jpg Female Orange-winged Dropwing (Trithemis kirbyi) - Flickr - gailhampshire (1).jpg Trithemis kirbyi Selys, 1891 orange-winged dropwing,[6] Kirby's dropwing[4] Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinee-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe


Trithemis legrandi Dijkstra, Mézière & Kipping, 2015[12] robust dropwing[12] Cameroon, Gabon
Trithemis lilacina Förster, 1899 Indonesia
Trithemis longistyla (Fraser, 1953) Democratic Republic of the Congo
Monard's dropwing trithemis monardi female.jpg Trithemis monardi Ris, 1931 Monard's dropwing,[13] fluttering dropwing[1] Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Trithemis morrisoni Damm & Hadrys, 2009 rapids dropwing[1] Namibia, Zambia
Trithemis nigra Longfield, 1936 São Tomé & Príncipe
Trithemis nuptialis Karsch, 1894 hairy-legged dropwing[14] Angola, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
Trithemis osvaldae d'Andrea & Carfi, 1997 Cameroon, Gabon
Long-legged marsh glider (Trithemis pallidinervis) male Rajasthan.jpg Trithemis pallidinervis female by kadavoor.JPG Trithemis pallidinervis (Kirby, 1889) long-legged marsh glider[8] Asia
Trithemis palustris Damm & Hadrys, 2009 marsh dropwing[1] Namibia
Trithemis persephone Ris, 1912 Madagascar
T pluvialis AManson 008475-2.jpg Trithemis pluvialis Förster, 1906 riffle-and-reed dropwing,[4] river dropwing,[15] russet dropwing[1] Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Republic of South Africa, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Trithemis pruinata Karsch, 1899 cobalt dropwing[1] Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Republic of Guinea, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia
Dropwing (Trithemis selika) male.jpg Dropwing (Trithemis selika) female.jpg Trithemis selika Selys, 1869 Madagascar
Trithemis stictica Jaunty Dropwing.jpg Trithemis stictica 1.jpg Trithemis stictica (Burmeister, 1839) jaunty dropwing[4] Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Trithemis werneri, Elegant Dropwing Front.jpg Trithemis werneri Ris, 1912 elegant dropwing[4] Angola, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi.


Trithemis legrandi Dijkstra, Mézière & Kipping, 2015[12] robust dropwing[12] Cameroon, Gabon
Trithemis lilacina Förster, 1899 Indonesia
Trithemis longistyla (Fraser, 1953) Democratic Republic of the Congo
Monard's dropwing trithemis monardi female.jpg Trithemis monardi Ris, 1931 Monard's dropwing,[13] fluttering dropwing[1] Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Trithemis morrisoni Damm & Hadrys, 2009 rapids dropwing[1] Namibia, Zambia
Trithemis nigra Longfield, 1936 São Tomé & Príncipe
Trithemis nuptialis Karsch, 1894 hairy-legged dropwing[14] Angola, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
Trithemis osvaldae d'Andrea & Carfi, 1997 Cameroon, Gabon
Long-legged marsh glider (Trithemis pallidinervis) male Rajasthan.jpg Trithemis pallidinervis female by kadavoor.JPG Trithemis pallidinervis (Kirby, 1889) long-legged marsh glider[8] Asia
Trithemis palustris Damm & Hadrys, 2009 marsh dropwing[1] Namibia
Trithemis persephone Ris, 1912 Madagascar
T pluvialis AManson 008475-2.jpg Trithemis pluvialis Förster, 1906 riffle-and-reed dropwing,[4] river dropwing,[15] russet dropwing[1] Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Republic of South Africa, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Trithemis pruinata Karsch, 1899 cobalt dropwing[1] Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Republic of Guinea, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia
Dropwing (Trithemis selika) male.jpg Dropwing (Trithemis selika) female.jpg Trithemis selika Selys, 1869 Madagascar
Trithemis stictica Jaunty Dropwing.jpg Trithemis stictica 1.jpg Trithemis stictica (Burmeister, 1839) jaunty dropwing[4] Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Trithemis werneri, Elegant Dropwing Front.jpg Trithemis werneri Ris, 1912 elegant dropwing[4] Angola, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi.
References

Dijkstra, K.-D.B.; Clausnitzer, V. (2014). The dragonflies and damselflies of eastern Africa. Tervuren: Royal Museum for Central Africa. ISBN 978-94-916-1506-1.
Damm, S.; Dijkstra, K. D. B.; Hadrys, H. (2010). "Red drifters and dark residents: the phylogeny and ecology of a Plio-Pleistocene dragonfly radiation reflects Africa's changing environment (Odonata, Libellulidae, Trithemis)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54 (3): 870–882. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.12.006. PMID 20004729.
Martin Schorr; Dennis Paulson. "World Odonata List". University of Puget Sound. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
Samways, Michael J. (2008). The Dragonflies and Damselflies of South Africa. Pensoft. ISBN 978-954-642-330-6.
Clausnitzer, V. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2010). "Trithemis africana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T169243A6596888. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T169243A6596888.en.
"Checklist, English common names". DragonflyPix.com. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
Boudot, J.-P.; Clausnitzer, V.; Ferreira, S.; Suhling, F.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B.; Schneider, W.; Samraoui, B. (2016). "Trithemis annulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60052A83872427. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60052A83872427.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Subramanian, K. A. (2005). Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India (PDF).
Clausnitzer, V.; Suhling, F.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2016). "Trithemis dichroa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60055A86125978. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60055A86125978.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Clausnitzer, V.; Suhling, F.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2016). "Trithemis grouti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60059A86128396. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60059A86128396.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Clausnitzer, V.; Suhling, F.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2016). "Trithemis hecate". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60060A86128927. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60060A86128927.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B.; Kipping, Jens; Mézière, Nicolas (2015). "Sixty new dragonfly and damselfly species from Africa (Odonata)" (PDF). Odonatologica. 44 (4): 447–678. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
Clausnitzer, V.; Suhling, F. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2010). "Trithemis monardi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T60063A12216622. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T60063A12216622.en.
Clausnitzer, V.; Suhling, F.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2016). "Trithemis nuptialis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60064A86136750. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60064A86136750.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Clausnitzer, V.; Suhling, F. (2016). "Trithemis pluvialis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60065A86140049. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60065A86140049.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.

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