- Art Gallery -

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Psocodea
Ordo: Psocoptera
Subordo: Troctomorpha
Infraordines (2): Amphientometae – Nanopsocetae
Name

Troctomorpha Roesler, 1940
References

Roesler R., 1940. Neue und wenig bekannte Copeognathengattungen. I. Zoologischer Anzeiger 129(9/10):225–243., page: 235.

Vernacular names
français: Troctomorphes
Links

Zicha, Ondřej et al. Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Biological Library (BioLib).
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Encyclopedia of Life (EOL).
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Fauna Europaea.
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Paleobiology Database.
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on New Zealand Organisms Register (NZOR).
Troctomorpha - Taxon details on Psocodea Species File.

Troctomorpha is one of the three major suborders of Psocodea (formerly Psocoptera)[1][2](barklice, booklice, and parasitic lice), alongside Psocomorpha and Trogiomorpha. There are more than 30 families and 5,800 described species in Troctomorpha.[3][4][1] The order includes parasitic lice, which are most closely related to the booklice family Liposcelididae.

Cladogram

Cladogram showing the position of Troctomorpha within Psocodea:[5]

Psocodea
Troctomorpha
Phthiraptera

Philopteridae

Anoplura

Rhynchophthirina

Trichodectidae

Amblycera

Liposcelididae

Pachytroctidae

Sphaeropsocidae

Amphientometae

Psocomorpha

Homilopsocidea

Caeciliusetae

Psocetae

Epipsocetae

Philotarsetae

Archipsocetae

Trogiomorpha

Atropetae

Psyllipsocetae

Prionoglaridetae (paraphyletic)

Fossil record

The oldest record of the suborder is suggested to be Paramesopsocus adibi, known from the Late Jurassic Karabastau Formation of Kazakhstan.[6][7]
Classification

Troctomorpha contains the following subgroups:[1]

  • Infraorder: Amphientometae
    • Family: Amphientomidae Enderlein, 1903 (tropical barklice)
    • Family: Compsocidae Mockford, 1967
    • Family: Electrentomidae Enderlein, 1911
    • Family: Manicapsocidae Mockford, 1967
    • Family: Musapsocidae Mockford, 1967
    • Family: Protroctopsocidae Smithers, 1972
    • Family: Troctopsocidae Mockford, 1967
  • Infraorder: Nanopsocetae
    • Family: Liposcelididae Broadhead, 1950 (booklice)
    • Family: Pachytroctidae Enderlein, 1904 (thick barklice)
    • Family: Sphaeropsocidae Menon, 1941
    • Parvorder: Phthiraptera
      • Superfamily: Amblycera
        • Family: Ancistronidae
        • Family: Boopiidae Mjoberg, 1910
        • Family: Colpocephalidae Eichler, 1937
        • Family: Gliricolidae
        • Family: Gyropidae Kellogg, 1896
        • Family: Laemobothriidae Mjoberg, 1910
        • Family: Menoponidae Mjoberg, 1910 (chicken body lice)
        • Family: Pseudomenoponidae Mjoberg, 1910
        • Family: Ricinidae Neumann, 1890
        • Family: Somaphantidae Eichler, 1941
        • Family: Trimenoponidae
        • Family: Trinotonidae Eichler, 1941
      • Superfamily: Anoplura
        • Family: Echinophthiriidae Enderlein, 1904 (seal lice)
        • Family: Enderleinellidae Ewing, 1929
        • Family: Haematopinidae Enderlein, 1904 (ungulate lice)
        • Family: Hamophthiriidae Johnson, 1969
        • Family: Hoplopleuridae Ewing, 1929 (armoured lice)
        • Family: Hybothiridae Ewing, 1929
        • Family: Linognathidae Webb, 1946 (pale lice)
        • Family: Microthoraciidae Kim & Lugwig, 1978
        • Family: Neolinognathidae Fahrenholz, 1936
        • Family: Pecaroecidae Kéler, 1963
        • Family: Pedicinidae Enderlein, 1904
        • Family: Pediculidae Leach, 1817 (body lice, head lice)
        • Family: Polyplacidae Fahrenholz, 1912 (spiny rat lice)
        • Family: Pthiridae Ewing, 1929 (crab lice or pubic lice)
        • Family: Ratemiidae Kim & Lugwig, 1978
      • Superfamily: Ischnocera (paraphyletic)
        • Family: Bovicolidae
        • Family: Dasyonygidae
        • Family: Goniodidae
        • Family: Heptapsogasteridae
        • Family: Lipeuridae
        • Family: Philopteridae Nitzsch, 1818 (paraphyletic)
        • Family: Trichodectidae
        • Family: Trichophilopteridae
      • Superfamily: Rhyncophthirina
        • Family: Haematomyzidae Enderlein, 1904

References

Johnson, Kevin P.; Smith, Vincent S. (2021). "Psocodea species file online, Version 5.0". Retrieved 2021-11-05.
Bess, Emilie; Smith, Vince; Lienhard, Charles; Johnson, Kevin P. (2006). "Psocodea". Tree of Life. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
"Troctomorpha Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
"Troctomorpha suborder Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
de Moya, Robert S; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Walden, Kimberly K O; Sweet, Andrew D; Dietrich, Christopher H; Kevin P, Johnson (2021-06-16). Buckley, Thomas (ed.). "Phylogenomics of Parasitic and Nonparasitic Lice (Insecta: Psocodea): Combining Sequence Data and Exploring Compositional Bias Solutions in Next Generation Data Sets". Systematic Biology. 70 (4): 719–738. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syaa075. ISSN 1063-5157.
Azar, Dany; Hajar, Lara; Indary, Chadi; Nel, André (January 2008). "Paramesopsocidae, a new Mesozoic psocid family (Insecta: Psocodea "Psocoptera": Psocomorpha)". Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.). 44 (4): 459–470. doi:10.1080/00379271.2008.10697581. ISSN 0037-9271.

Mockford, Edward L.; Lienhard, Charles; Yoshizawa, Kazunori (October 2013). "Revised classification of 'Psocoptera' from Cretaceous amber, a reassessment of published information". Insecta matsumurana. New series : journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Hokkaido University, series entomology. 69: 1–26. ISSN 0020-1804.

Further reading

Lyal, Ch H. C. (1985). "Phylogeny and classification of the Psocodea, with particular reference to the lice (Psocodea: Phthiraptera)". Systematic Entomology. 10 (2): 145–165. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1985.tb00525.x. ISSN 0307-6970.

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World