- Art Gallery -

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordo: Araneomorphae
Taxon: Neocribellatae
Series: Entelegynae
Superfamilia: Lycosoidea

Familia: Zoropsidae
Subfamilia: Zoropsinae
Genus: Uliodon
Species: U. albopunctatus – U. cervinus – U. ferrugineus – U. frenatus – U. marmoreus
Name

Uliodon L. Koch, 1873

Type species: Uliodon albopunctatus L. Koch, 1873, designated by Simon, 1892
References

Harris, A.C.; Durry, A. 2014: Some reactions to bites by spiders of the genus Uliodon (Zoropsidae) in southern New Zealand. Weta 47: 62-66. Abstract and full article (PDF) Reference page.
Koch, L. 1873. Die Arachniden Australiens. Nürnberg, 1: 369–472. [431]
Raven, R. J. & K. Stumkat. 2003. Problem solving in the spider families Miturgidae, Ctenidae and Psechridae (Araneae) in Australia and New Zealand. Journal of Arachnology 31: 105–121. PDF" [109]
Platnick, N. I. 2009. The World Spider Catalog, version 9.5. American Museum of Natural History. [1]

Uliodon is a genus of spiders endemic to New Zealand and possibly Australia. They are commonly referred to as vagrant spiders. Vagrant spiders vary in colour from dark brown to almost black, they typically have a body length of 20mm and a 50mm leg span. When alive, the interior of the male's pedipalp are brightly coloured (usually orange).[1]

They are nocturnal hunters, feeding on ground-dwelling invertebrates. During the day they are found under logs and rocks.[2][3] They can be found in a variety of habitats: native forest and plantations, or more open habitat, but also scree slopes and occasionally in houses.[1]

Reproduction

After mating, the female prepares a chamber lined with silk beneath a log or stone on the forest floor, or inside a rotten log, where they construct a rather large and round egg sac that they guard until the young hatch and disperse.[4] The genus is apparently widespread throughout the country.[1]
Taxonomy

As of October 2015, three or possibly four species of Uliodon are accepted. However, the three known species are not recognisable based on published descriptions.[1]

Uliodon albopunctatus (L. Koch, 1873) – New Zealand
Uliodon cervinus (L. Koch, 1873) – New Zealand
Uliodon frenatus (L. Koch, 1873) – New Zealand

The males of Uliodon albopunctatus and Uliodon cervinus are undescribed.[1]

In 2003, Robert Raven and Kylie Stumkat considered that the genus was endemic to New Zealand, transferring all the Australian species they reviewed to other genera, and transferred Uliodon from the family Miturgidae to the Zoropsidae.[5] A further species, found in Australia and not reviewed by Raven and Stumkat, is listed by the World Spider Catalog as of October 2015:[6]

Uliodon ferrugineus (L. Koch, 1873) – Australia

Another 40 undescribed species are suspected and may represent several distinct genera.[1]

Species transferred to other genera include:[6]

Uliodon australiensis (L. Koch, 1873) – Mituliodon tarantulinus (L. Koch, 1873)
Uliodon maritimus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1883) – Amaurobioides maritima O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1883
Uliodon marmoreus (Hogg, 1896) – Mitzoruga marmorea (Hogg, 1896)
Uliodon oswaldi (Lenz, 1891) – Zorodictyna oswaldi (Lenz, 1891)
Uliodon tarantulinus (L. Koch, 1873) – Mituliodon tarantulinus (L. Koch, 1873)
Uliodon torvus (L. Koch, 1873) – Mituliodon tarantulinus (L. Koch, 1873)

Toxicology

Not considered dangerous. However, when mishandled, these spiders tend to inflict a painful bite given their large size. The bites are usually without further consequences, but Watt (1971)[7] reported a case of a bad reaction (pain, swollen skin and stiff joints).[1]
References

Paquin, P; Vink, C.J; Duperre, N (2010). Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key & species list. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press.
Clunie, L. (2004). "Bug identification - vagrant spider". Landcare Research New Zealand Limited. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
"Vagrant spiders". Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
Forster, R.R; Forster, L.M (1999). Spiders of New Zealand and their worldwide kin. Otago, New Zealand: University of Otago Press.
Raven, R.J.; Stumkat, K. (2003). "Problem solving in the spider families Miturgidae, Ctenidae and Psechridae (Araneae) in Australia and New Zealand" (PDF). Journal of Arachnology. 31: 105–121. doi:10.1636/0161-8202(2003)031[0105:psitsf]2.0.co;2. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
"Gen. Uliodon L. Koch, 1873". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
Watt, J.C (1971). The toxic effects of the bite of a clubionid spider. New Zealand Entomologist. p. 87.

Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World