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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Phylum: Brachiopoda
Subphylum: Rhynchonelliformea
Classis: †Strophomenata
Ordo: †Productida
Subordines: Chonetidina - Lyttoniidina - Productidina - Strophalosiidina

Productida Sarytcheva & Sokolskaya, 1959

The Paleobiology Database Accessed 01/23/10

Productida is an extinct order of brachiopods in the extinct class Strophomenata. Members of Productida first appeared during the Silurian.[1] They represented the most abundant group of brachiopods during the Permian period, accounting for 45-70% of all species. The vast majority of species went extinct during the Permian-Triassic extinction event, though a handful survived into the Early Triassic.[2] Many productids are covered in hollow tubular spines, which are characteristic of the group. A number of functions for the spines have been proposed, including as a defensive mechanism against predators.[3]

Following the Treatise[4]

  • Suborder Chonetidina
    • Superfamily Chonetoidea
      • Family Strophochonetidae
      • Family Chonostrophiidae
      • Family Anopliidae
      • Family Eodevonariidae
      • Family Chonetidae
      • Family Rugosochonetidae
      • Family Daviesiellidae
  • Suborder Productidina
    • Superfamily Productoidea
      • Family Productellidae
      • Family Productidae
    • Superfamily Echinoconchoidea
      • Family Echinoconchidae
      • Family Sentosiidae
    • Superfamily Linoproductoidea
      • Family Linoproductidae
      • Family Monticuliferidae
  • Suborder Strophalosiidina
    • Superfamily Strophalosioidea
      • Family Strophalosiidae
      • Family Chonopectidae
      • Family Araksalosiidae
    • Superfamily Aulostegoidea
      • Family Aulostegidae
      • Family Cooperinidae
      • Family Scacchinellidae
    • Superfamily Richthofenioidea
      • Family Richthofeniidae
      • Family Hercosiidae
      • Family Cyclacanthariidae
      • Family Gemmellaroiidae
  • Suborder Lyttoniidina
    • Superfamily Lyttonioidea
      • Family Lyttoniidae
      • Family Rigbyellidae
    • Superfamily Permianelloidea
      • Family Permianellidae


Clarkson, E. N. K. (2013-07-23). Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-68516-7.
Zhang, Yang; He, WeiHong (November 2008). "Evolutionary patterns of Productida (Brachiopoda) morphology during the Permian in South China". Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences. 51 (11): 1589–1600. doi:10.1007/s11430-008-0131-3. ISSN 1006-9313. S2CID 129786860.
Johnsen, Simen Alexander Linge; Ahmed, Madeeha; Leighton, Lindsey R. (April 2013). "The effect of spines of a Devonian productide brachiopod on durophagous predation". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 375: 30–37. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.02.009.
Williams, Alwyn; Carlson, S.J.; Brunton, C.H.C.; Holmer, L.E.; Popov, L.E.; Mergl, M.; Laurie, J.R.; Bassett, M.G.; Cocks, L.R.M.; Rong, J.-Y.; et al. (2000). Paul Selden (ed.). "Part H, Brachiopoda. Linguliformea, Craniiformea, and Rhynchonelliformea". Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America.


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