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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura

Familia: Microhylidae
Subfamilia: Gastrophryninae
Genus: Chiasmocleis
Species: C. alagoanus – C. albopunctata – C. altomontana – C. anatipes – C. atlantica – C. avilapiresae – C. bassleri – C. capixaba – C. carvalhoi – C. centralis – C. cordeiroi – C. crucis – C. devriesi – C. gnoma – C. hudsoni – C. jimi – C. leucosticta – C. magnova – C. mantiqueira – C. mehelyi – C. migueli – C. quilombola – C. sapiranga – C. schubarti – C. shudikarensis – C. ventrimaculata – C. veracruz

Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904

Type species: Engystoma albopunctatum Boettger, 1885

Nectodactylus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1924


Funk, W.C.; Cannatella, D.C. 2009: A new, large species of Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ 1904 (Anura: Microhylidae) from the Iquitos region, Amazonian Peru. Zootaxa, 2247: 37–50. Abstract & excerpt
Méhely, 1904, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 2: 210.
Peloso, P.L.V.; Sturaro, M.J. 2008: A new species of narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904 (Anura, Microhylidae) from the Amazonian rainforest of Brazil. Zootaxa, 1947: 39–52. Abstract & excerpt
Peloso, P.L.V., McDiarmid, R.W. & Caramaschi, U. 2013. The gender of “cleis”: correct spelling of Chiasmocleis supercilialbus Morales and McDiarmid, 2009, and Elachistocleis magnus Toledo, 2010 (Anura, Microhylidae). Zootaxa 3718(3): 297–298. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3718.3.7 Paywall Reference page.


Amphibian Species of the World 5.1 Chiasmocleis access date 16 June 2008

Vernacular names
English: Humming Frogs

Chiasmocleis is a genus of microhylid frogs.[1][2] They are found in tropical South America north and east of the Andes. Their common name is humming frogs or silent frogs, the latter referring to the formerly recognized Syncope.[1]


There has been various attempts to delimit this genus in a way that would make it monophyletic. As of mid 2021,[1] it is recognized as including the former Syncope, but consisting of three clades ranked as subgenera:[1][3]

Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ, 1904
Syncope Walker, 1973
Relictocleis Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021 (syn. Unicus, Relictus)

Of these, Relictocleis is the most divergent[3] and may even be considered a separate, monotypic genus, with Relictocleis gnoma as its sole member.[1]
small frog sitting on the ground
Chiasmocleis quilombola

Chiasmocleis are small-bodied frogs with small limbs. They are sexually dimorphic, with males having darker chin, abundant to no dermal spines, and variable degree of pedal webbing. Subgenus Syncope is characterized by size reduction and reduction or loss of phalanges and digits. Also Relictocleis are particularly small.[3]

Chiasmocleis are fossorial or semi-fossorial and well camouflaged among the leaf litter or underground. They only forage on the surface for a few days during periods of explosive breeding at the beginning of the rainy season. They occur in both forested and open environments.[3]
small frog sitting on the ground
Chiasmocleis crucis

The following species are recognised in the genus Chiasmocleis:[1]

Chiasmocleis alagoana Cruz, Caramaschi, and Freire, 1999
Chiasmocleis albopunctata (Boettger, 1885)
Chiasmocleis altomontana Forlani, Tonini, Cruz, Zaher, and de Sá, 2017
Chiasmocleis anatipes Walker and Duellman, 1974
Chiasmocleis antenori (Walker, 1973)
Chiasmocleis atlantica Cruz, Caramaschi, and Izecksohn, 1997
Chiasmocleis avilapiresae Peloso and Sturaro, 2008
Chiasmocleis bassleri Dunn, 1949
Chiasmocleis bicegoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920
Chiasmocleis capixaba Cruz, Caramaschi, and Izecksohn, 1997
Chiasmocleis carvalhoi (Nelson, 1975)
Chiasmocleis centralis Bokermann, 1952
Chiasmocleis cordeiroi Caramaschi and Pimenta, 2003
Chiasmocleis crucis Caramaschi and Pimenta, 2003
Chiasmocleis devriesi Funk and Cannatella, 2009
Chiasmocleis gnoma Canedo, Dixo, and Pombal, 2004
Chiasmocleis haddadi Peloso, Sturaro, Forlani, Gaucher, Motta, and Wheeler, 2014
Chiasmocleis hudsoni Parker, 1940
Chiasmocleis jimi Caramaschi and Cruz, 2001
Chiasmocleis lacrimae Peloso, Sturaro, Forlani, Gaucher, Motta, and Wheeler, 2014
Chiasmocleis leucosticta (Boulenger, 1888)
Chiasmocleis magnova Moravec and Köhler, 2007
Chiasmocleis mantiqueira Cruz, Feio, and Cassini, 2007
Chiasmocleis mehelyi Caramaschi and Cruz, 1997
Chiasmocleis migueli Forlani, Tonini, Cruz, Zaher, and de Sá, 2017
Chiasmocleis papachibe Peloso, Sturaro, Forlani, Gaucher, Motta, and Wheeler, 2014
Chiasmocleis parkeri Almendáriz C., Brito-M., Batallas-R., Vaca-Guerrero, and Ron, 2017
Chiasmocleis quilombola Tonini, Forlani, and de Sá, 2014
Chiasmocleis royi Peloso, Sturaro, Forlani, Gaucher, Motta, and Wheeler, 2014
Chiasmocleis sapiranga Cruz, Caramaschi, and Napoli, 2007
Chiasmocleis schubarti Bokermann, 1952
Chiasmocleis shudikarensis Dunn, 1949
Chiasmocleis supercilialba Morales and McDiarmid, 2009
Chiasmocleis tridactyla (Duellman and Mendelson, 1995)
Chiasmocleis ventrimaculata (Andersson, 1945)
Chiasmocleis veracruz Forlani, Tonini, Cruz, Zaher, and de Sá, 2017


Frost, Darrel R. (2021). "Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.vz.0001. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
"Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
de Sá, Rafael O.; Tonini, João Filipe Riva; van Huss, Hannah; Long, Alex; Cuddy, Travis; Forlani, Mauricio C.; Peloso, Pedro L.V.; Zaher, Hussam & Haddad, Célio F.B. (2019) [2018]. "Multiple connections between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest shaped the phylogenetic and morphological diversity of Chiasmocleis Mehely, 1904 (Anura: Microhylidae: Gastrophryninae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 130: 198–210. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.10.021. PMID 30347238.

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