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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura

Familia: Cryptobatrachidae
Genus: Cryptobatrachus
Species: C. boulengeri – C. conditus – C. fuhrmanni – C. nicefori – C. pedroruizi – C. remotus – C. ruthveni

Cryptobatrachus Ruthven, 1916

Type species: Cryptobatrachus boulengeri Ruthven, 1916

Lynch, J.D. 2008: A taxonomic revision of frogs of the genus Cryptobatrachus (Anura: Hemiphractidae). Zootaxa, 1883: 28–68.
Ruthven, 1916, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 33: 1.
Amphibian Species of the World 5.1 Cryptobatrachus access date 21 May 2008

Vernacular names
English: Backpack Frogs

Cryptobatrachus is a genus of frogs in the family Hemiphractidae. They are found in Colombia and Venezuela.[1][2] They are also known as backpack frogs,[1] as the females have the habit of carrying their egg clutch on their backs until the young hatch; this behavior also occurs in the related hemiphractid genera Hemiphractus and Stefania.[3][4]


Cryptobatrachus have a treefrog-like habitus.[3] Males measure 27–52 mm (1.1–2.0 in) and females 48–75 mm (1.9–3.0 in) in snout–vent length.[2] Fingers have no webbing whereas the toes are webbed. The finger and toe tips bear disks that are larger on the former.[5] Also adhesive pads are present on the penultimate subarticular tubercles on the fingers.[2][5] Males lack vocal sac[2] and these frogs appear not to vocalize.[5]

There are six species in the genus Cryptobatrachus:[1][2]

Cryptobatrachus boulengeri Ruthven, 1916
Cryptobatrachus conditus Lynch [fr], 2008[5]
Cryptobatrachus fuhrmanni (Peracca, 1914)
Cryptobatrachus pedroruizi Lynch, 2008[5]
Cryptobatrachus remotus Infante-Rivero, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2009
Cryptobatrachus ruthveni Lynch, 2008[5]

The AmphibiaWeb lists the six species above, but also Cryptobatrachus nicefori,[6] which the Amphibian Species of the World places in the hylid subfamily Cophomantinae as "Hyla" nicefori, indicating uncertain generic affiliation.[7]
Habitat and ecology

Cryptobatrachus occur on humid forested slopes in the mountain ranges of northern Colombia and northeast Venezuela at elevations of 360–2,400 m (1,180–7,870 ft) above sea level. They are nocturnal and perch on low bushes or cling to rocks and cliffs in spray zones of waterfalls.

Frost, Darrel R. (2021). "Cryptobatrachus Ruthven, 1916". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.vz.0001. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
Duellman, William E. (2015). Marsupial Frogs. Gastrotheca and Allied Genera. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 108–110. ISBN 978-1-4214-1675-5.
Vitt, Laurie J. & Caldwell, Janalee P. (2014). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (4th ed.). Academic Press. p. 497.
Means, D. Bruce; William E. Duellman & Valerie C. Clark (2008). "Ovipositing behavior in the egg-brooding frog Stefania ayangannae (Anura, Hemiphractidae)". Phyllomedusa. 7 (2): 143–148. doi:10.11606/issn.2316-9079.v7i2p143-148.
Lynch, John D. (2008). "A taxonomic revision of frogs of the genus Cryptobatrachus (Anura: Hemiphractidae)". Zootaxa. 1883 (1): 28–68. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1883.1.2.
"Hemiphractidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
Frost, Darrel R. (2021). ""Hyla" nicefori (Cochran and Goin, 1970)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.vz.0001. Retrieved 28 April 2021.

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