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Typhlonectes compressicauda

Typhlonectes compressicauda , (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Gymnophiona

Familia: Caeciliidae
Subfamilia: Typhlonectinae
Genus: Typhlonectes
Species: Typhlonectes compressicauda
Name

Typhlonectes compressicauda (Duméril & Bibron, 1841)

Type locality: "Cayenne", French Guiana.

Holotype: MNHNP 4269.
Synonyms

Coecilia compressicauda Duméril & Bibron, 1841
Typhlonectes compressicaudus — Peters, 1880
Thyphlonectes compressicauda compressicauda — Fuhrmann, 1914
Typhlonectes compressicauda — Ginés, 1959
Typhlonectes anguillaformis Taylor, 1968
Typhlonectes obesus Taylor, 1968
Nectocaecilia ladigesi Taylor, 1968
Typhlonectes cunhai Cascon, Lima-Verde & Benevides Marques, 1991

References

Duméril & Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 278.
Ginés, 1959, Mem. Soc. Cienc. Nat. La Salle, 19: 96.
Frost, D. 2008. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.2 (15 July, 2008). Electronic Database accessible at www.research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Typhlonectes compressicauda
AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2010. Berkeley, California: Typhlonectes compressicauda. AmphibiaWeb, available at http://amphibiaweb.org/.
2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species IUCN: Typhlonectes compressicauda (Least Concern) Downloaded on 13 August 2008.

Vernacular names
English: Cayenne Caecilian
polski: Strumienica płaskoogonowa

Typhlonectes compressicauda, the Cayenne caecilian, is a species of amphibian in the family Typhlonectidae that lives in water. It is found in Amazonian Brazil, Peru, and Colombia as well as in Guyana and French Guiana, and likely Suriname,[2] and according to some sources, Venezuela.[1] It is an aquatic caecilian that inhabits permanent rivers and marshes mainly in the lowland forest zone.[1]

Description

The Cayenne caecilian is an elongated, dark grey, black or steely blue amphibian with no limbs. The body is flattened laterally and has a number of transverse folds, giving it a segmented appearance. A long fin runs along its back, and it grows to a length of 30 to 55 cm (12 to 22 in).[3] It has a more highly derived morphology than some more primitive species, showing differences in lung structure, the reproductive organs, and the kidneys.[4]
Distribution

The Cayenne caecilian occurs in South America, including the Amazon basin and river systems in the Guianas. It is found at altitudes of up to 200 m (660 ft) above sea level. Because it is common and has a wide range, it is listed as of "Least Concern" in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[1]
Biology

The Cayenne caecilian lives in shallow streams and rivers. It spends the day in a communal burrow, emerging at night to hunt through the sediment for small invertebrates such as insect larvae and shrimps. It also eats small fish. It has no functional eyes and probably detects its prey by touch or by the vibrations made when the prey moves. It has slime glands all over its body and secretes copious amounts of noxious mucous if attacked. Nevertheless, it is eaten by birds, snakes, and large fish.[3]

At breeding time, a male and female Cayenne caecilian twine around each other and the male places a spermatophore in the female's cloaca. Fertilisation is internal and the Cayenne caecilian is ovoviviparous. Six to 14 young hatch inside the female's oviduct with gills. At first, they feed on the yolks of their eggs, but they develop rasping teeth and later consume glandular secretions produced by the lining of the oviduct. Birth takes place after about eight months and the juvenile caecilians shed their temporary teeth and develop their adult dentition.[3]

The Cayenne caecilian is considered to have several characteristics that are more highly derived than other more primitive species. Its karyotype has been compared with that of other caecilians, and its diploid number has been found to be 28, a fact that does not support the hypothesis that, during the period of amphibian evolution, the number of chromosomes became reduced. However, many caecilians have not yet been karyotyped and the exact evolutionary relationships between the species have not yet been determined, so the hypothesis is not necessarily incorrect.[4]
References

Enrique La Marca, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Marinus Hoogmoed, Mark Wilkinson, John Measey (2010). "Typhlonectes compressicauda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T59599A11959503. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T59599A11959503.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Typhlonectes compressicauda (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
"Tailless caecilians: Caeciliidae - Cayenne Caecilian (Typhlonectes compressicauda)". 2005. Retrieved 2012-09-13.
M.H. Wake; J.C. Hafner; M. S. Hafner; L.L. Klosterman; J. L. Patton (1980). "The karyotype of Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) with comments on chromosome evolution in caecilians" (PDF). Experientia. 36 (2): 171–172. doi:10.1007/bf01953713. PMID 7371747. S2CID 20808756.

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