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Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Parvordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Sylvioidea
Familia: Aegithalidae
Genera: Aegithalos - Psaltria - Psaltriparus


Aegithalidae Reichenbach, 1850


The long-tailed tits or bushtits[1], Aegithalidae, are a family of small passerine birds. The family contains 13 species in four genera.

Distribution and habitat

All the Aegithalidae are forest birds, particularly forest edge and understory habitats. The species in the genus Aegithalos prefer deciduous or mixed deciduous forests, while the tiny Pygmy Tit is found mostly in montane coniferous forest. The Bushtit is found in a wide range of habitats, including on occasion sagebrush and other arid shrublands, but is most common in mixed woodland. Most species in this family live in mountainous habitats in and around the Himalayas, and all are distributed in Eurasia except the Bushtit, which is native to western North America. The Long-tailed Tit has the most widespread distribution of any species of Aegithalidae, occurring across Eurasia from Britain to Japan. Two species in contrast have tiny distributions, the Burmese Tit, which is entirely restricted to two mountains in Burma, and the Pygmy Tit, which is restricted to the mountains of western Java. The species in this family are generally not migratory, although the Long-tailed Tit is prone to dispersing in the northern edges of its range (particularly in Siberia). Many mountainous species move to lower ground during the winter.[2]

In the non-breeding season Bushtit pairs join into large flocks

They are small birds, measuring 9–14 cm (3.5–5.5 in) in length, including the relatively long tail, and weighing just 4.5–9 g (0.16–0.32 oz). Their plumage is typically dull grey or brown, although some species have white markings and the Long-tailed Tit has some pinkish colour.[3] In contrast to the rest of the family the two Leptopoecile tit-warblers are quite brightly coloured, having violet and blue plumage. The Crested Tit-warbler is the only member of the family to have a crest. The bills in this family are tiny, short and conical in shape. The wings are short and rounded and the legs are relatively long.

They are omnivorous, primarily eating insects and other invertebrates.[4] Plant material is taken occasionally during the winter. The family generally forages in arboreally, usually in the shrub layer or canopy, and seldom visits the ground. Prey is generally glean from branches, leaves and buds, more rarely is it taken in the air. While foraging this agile family may hang upside down on branches (although this behaviour is not thought to occur in the tit-warblers) and even manipulate branches and leaves in order to locate hidden food.[2]

Birds in this family live in flocks of 6 to 12 for a large part of the year. They maintain contact with "churring" calls; their songs are quiet.[3]

The family generally has a monogamous breeding system. Pairs may be aided by helpers, where a related individual (or more than one) helps the established pair raise the young. While this has only been recorded in two species, this probably reflects a lack of information.[2] Aegithalids make domed, bag-like, nests of woven cobwebs and lichen, which they line with feathers. They make the nests in trees with thick foliage, making them difficult for predators to find.[4] The clutch comprises 6 to 10 white eggs, which in many of the species have red speckles. Adults incubate the eggs for 13 to 14 days; young stay in the nest for 16 to 17 days. At least in the two well-studied species (the Long-tailed Tit and the Bushtit), it is likely that only the female incubates.[3] Young chicks are fed exclusively on insects and spiders.[2]

In contrast to most of the family the White-browed Tit-warbler has brightly coloured plumage
Pygmy Tit

The Pygmy Tit is placed in this family because it moves around in flocks and its nests resemble the long-tailed tits', but information about it is so scanty that the placement is only provisional.[3] The Burmese Tit is sometimes treated as conspecific with the Black-browed Tit.[2]

There are 13 species in 4 genera.


* White-necklaced Tit Aegithalos fuliginosus
* Silver-throated Tit Aegithalos glaucogularis
* Rufous-fronted Tit Aegithalos iouschistos
* Black-browed Tit Aegithalos bonvaloti
* Burmese Tit Aegithalos sharpei
* White-cheeked Tit Aegithalos leucogenys
* White-throated Tit Aegithalos niveogularis
* Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus
* Black-throated Tit Aegithalos concinnus


* Bushtit, Psaltriparus minimus


* Pygmy Tit, Psaltria exilis


* White-browed Tit-warbler Leptopoecile sophiae
* Crested Tit-warbler Leptopoecile elegans


1. ^ Gill, F., Wright, M. & Donsker, D. (2008). IOC World Bird Names (version 1.6). Available at http://www.worldbirdnames.org/
2. ^ a b c d e Harrap, Simon (2008). "Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 13, Penduline-tits to Shrikes. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 76–101. ISBN 978-84-96553-45-3
3. ^ a b c d Perrins, Christopher M. (2003). "Long-tailed Tits". In Perrins, Christopher. The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. pp. 556–557. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.
4. ^ a b Perrins, C. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph. ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 202. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.

* Harrap and Quinn, Tits, Nuthatches and Treecreepers ISBN 0-7136-3964-4

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