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Eupodotis afra -South Africa-8

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Otidiformes

Familia: Otididae
Genus: Afrotis
Species: Afrotis afra
Name

Afrotis afra (Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonyms

Otis afra (protonym)
Eupodotis afra

References

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio Decima, Reformata. Tomus I. Holmiæ (Stockholm): impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. 824 pp. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542 BHL p. 155 BHL Reference page.
IUCN: Afrotis afra (Vulnerable)

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Swartvlerkkorhaan
brezhoneg: Otiz du
català: Sisó negre meridional
Cymraeg: Ceiliog gwaun du
dansk: Sorttrappe
Deutsch: Gackeltrappe
English: Black Bustard, Southern black korhaan
español: Sisón negro alioscuro
فارسی: هوبره سیاه جنوبی
français: Outarde korhaan
עברית: חוברה שחורה דרומית
italiano: Otarda nera
日本語: クロエリショウノガン
Nederlands: Zwarte trap
Diné bizaad: Tééh dééł yistłʼinígíí
português: Abetarda-de-asa-preta
svenska: svarttrapp
Tiếng Việt: Ô tác đen

The southern black korhaan (Afrotis afra), also known as the black bustard, is a species of bird in the bustard family, Otididae.[3] This small bustard is found in southwestern South Africa, from Namaqualand, south to Cape Town and east to Makhanda.[1] It prefers semi-arid habitats such as grasslands, shrublands and savannas where it can easily prey on ground-dwelling arthropods and eat seeds.[1][4] It reproduces yearly in the spring and will lay about one or two eggs per breeding season.[5]

Numbers have declined rapidly as much of its habitat has been converted to agricultural land and remaining tracts are often fragmented.[1][6] Due to this habitat destruction, the species is considered vulnerable by the IUCN Red List.[1]

Taxonomy

The southern black korhaan was one of the many bird species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in the 1758 10th edition of his Systema Naturae, where it was given the binomial name of Otis afra.[7] Formerly known as Eupodotis afra, it is now classified as Afrotis afra.[3] They belong to the bustard family, Otididae.[3]

It was previously thought that the southern black korhaan and the northern black korhaan were the same species (the northern black korhaan being a sub-species, E. afra afroaoides).[8] They are now classified as different species due to their disjunct ranges and habitats, and differences in plumage, vocalizations and social systems.[8] They also have differences in their mitochondrial DNA.[8]

"Southern black korhaan" has been designated as the official common name for the species by the International Ornithologists' Union (IOC).[9]
Description

The southern black korhaan is a ground-dwelling bird with some sexual dimorphism.[10] The male's main body plumage is of a checkered black and white with a black underbelly and neck.[11] It also displays some white on the underwings, on the cheeks and in stripes over the eyes.[11] The female, in contrast, has the whole of her head, neck and breast the same colour as her body, which is checkered brown and white.[11] Both the female and the male have bright yellow legs.[11]

The male is slightly larger than the female.[11] The male has a wingspan of 27 cm (10.6 in) to 28 cm (11.0 in) and the female a wingspan of 25 cm (9.8 in) to 26 cm (10.2 in).[10] The tail is about 12 cm (4.7 in) to 13 cm (5.1 in) long.[10] The male's bill is larger with a length of 3.8 cm to 3.9 cm (1.5 in), while the female's is about 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long.[10] The bill is of a reddish colour with a black tip.[10] Lifespan averages 10 years.[1]
Distribution and habitat

The southern black korhaan is endemic to southwestern South Africa, ranging from Namaqualand, south to Cape Town, and east to Makhanda. It occupies about 254,000 km2 (98,000 sq mi).[1] It prefers open, semi-arid habitats such as shrub-lands and savannahs where it can easily prey on grass-dwelling arthropods, also grasslands adjoining marshland.[1][12][13]
Behaviour
Vocalisation

Vocalisation has been described as a "continuous cackling sound".[14] It is mostly the male that calls, as it vocalizes very often and very loudly.[11] The call is a raucous "knock-me-down, knock-me-down".[11]
Breeding

The southern black korhaan is a polygynous species, which means males mate with multiple females.[15][16] To attract females, males will display high flying.[16] They breed in the spring.[5] Females lays one or two eggs in a depression in the soil and covers them with strands of grass. The eggs are of an olive or brown colour with some dark black spots.[11] Only the females provide parental care as they take care of the eggs and then raise the chicks.[5]
Diet
Southern black korhaan (Afrotis afra) - male

This is an omnivorous species. Two-thirds of its diet is made up of arthropods, and it will eat termites, beetles, grasshoppers and ants.[4] The rest of its diet is composed of plant matter, mostly seeds.[4] It partakes in a mutualistic relationship with Acacia cyclops, a species of Acacia;[17] the southern black korhaan benefits from the seeds as they are a readily available food source, and in return, disperses the seeds to good germination sites.[17] The southern black korhaan will also ingest grit and other small rocks to help in digestion by assisting the grinding process in the gizzard. A study has also shown that two thirds of birds have nematode parasites in their intestinal tract.[4]
Status and conservation

Recent studies have shown that the southern black korhaan's population has been decreasing lately, which has raised concerns about its conservation status.[18] The species was once very common but it is now becoming rarer as its habitat is being fragmented.[6] Hence, it has been deemed vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of threatened species since October 1, 2016.[1]

The primary threat to these species is the conversion of natural vegetation to agricultural lands as well as aquaculture.[1] This has caused habitat fragmentation and a reduction in available food sources.[1] This reduction in habitat also means less suitable breeding grounds, which has not only affected breeding success, but chick and egg survival rates.[6] Indeed, agricultural lands do not provide sufficient plant cover to protect them from predators such as the Pied Crow.[6]

Other threats include climate change, human disturbance and diseases.[1]
References

BirdLife International (2016). "Afrotis afra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22691975A93331501. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22691975A93331501.en. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
"Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
del Hoyo, Josep; Collar, Nigel J. (2014). "Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world". Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International. 1: Non-passerines.
Kok, O. B.; Earlé, R. A. (1990-12-01). "Diet of the Black Korhaan Eupodotis Afra in the Orange Free State and North-West Cape". Ostrich. 61 (3–4): 107–110. doi:10.1080/00306525.1990.9634155. ISSN 0030-6525.
Hockey, P.A.R.; Dean, W.R.J.; Ryan, P.G. (2005). Roberts - Birds of southern Africa, VIIIth edition. Cape Town: The Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund.
Hofmeyr, Sally D (2012). Impacts of environmental change on large terrestrial bird species in South Africa: insights from citizen science data. University of Cape Town. OCLC 920646225.
Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). Vol. v.1. Holmiae (Stockholm, Sweden): Laurentius Salvius. p. 155.
Crowe, T. M.; Essop, M. F.; Allan, D. G.; Brooke, R. K.; Komen, J. (1994). "'Overlooked' units of comparative and conservation biology: a case study of a small African bustard, the Black Korhaan Eupodotis afra". Ibis. 136 (2): 166–175. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1994.tb01081.x. ISSN 1474-919X.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Turacos, bustards, cuckoos, mesites, sandgrouse". World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
"Plates I to V". Annals of the Transvaal Museum. 23 (1). 1957-01-01. ISSN 0041-1752.
Layard, Edgar Leopold (1884). The Birds of South Africa. Bernard Quartich.
Winterbottom, J. M. (2010-10-11). "On the birds of the Sandveld Kalahari of South West Africa". Ostrich. 40:4 (4): 182–204. doi:10.1080/00306525.1969.9634346.
Allan, David G.; Harrison, James A.; Navarro, RenéA.; van Wilgen, Brian W.; Thompson, Mark W. (1997-02-01). "The impact of commercial afforestation on bird populations in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa — Insights from bird-atlas data". Biological Conservation. 79 (2): 173–85. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00098-5. ISSN 0006-3207.
Kemp, A.; Tarboton, W. (1976). "Small South Africa Bustard". Bomakierie. 28: 40–43.
Raihani, Gina; Székely, Tamás; Serrano-Meneses, M. Alejandro; Pitra, Christian; Goriup, Paul (2006-04-01). "The influence of sexual selection and male agility on sexual size dimorphism in bustards (Otididae)". Animal Behaviour. 71 (4): 833–838. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.06.013. ISSN 0003-3472. S2CID 53199054.
Urban, E.K.; Fry, C.H.; Keith, S. (1986). The Birds of Africa, Vol II. London: Academic Press.
Knight, Richard S.; Macdonald, I. A. W. (1991-08-01). "Acacias and korhaans: an artificially assembled seed dispersal system". South African Journal of Botany. 57 (4): 220–225. doi:10.1016/S0254-6299(16)30942-5. ISSN 0254-6299.
Shaw, Jessica M.; Jenkins, Andrew R.; Allan, David G.; Ryan, Peter G. (2016). "Population size and trends of Ludwig's Bustard Neotis ludwigii and other large terrestrial birds in the Karoo, South Africa". Bird Conservation International. 26 (1): 69–86. doi:10.1017/S0959270914000458. ISSN 0959-2709.

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