Anas flavirostris

Anas flavirostris , Photo: Duncan Wright(*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Anseriformes
Familia: Anatidae
Subfamilia: Anatinae
Genus: Anas
Species: Anas flavirostris

Name

Anas flavirostris Vieillot, 1816

References

* Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle Appliquée aux Arts 5 p.107

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Česky: Čírka kropenatá
English: Speckled Teal
Español: Pato barcino
Français: sarcelle à bec jaune
日本語: キバシコガモ
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Gulnebbkrikkand
Svenska: Gulnäbbad kricka

The Speckled Teal (Anas flavirostris) is a South American species of duck. Like other teals, it belongs to the diverse genus Anas; more precisely it is one of the "true" teals of subgenus Nettion.[1] It resides in Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Uruguay and Brazil. It has also established itself in South Georgia, where it was first recorded breeding in 1971. It inhabits freshwater wetlands, preferring palustrine habitat to rivers, and in the northern part of its range it is restricted to the Andean highlands. Considering its wide range and local abundance, it is not considered threatened by the IUCN.[2] It is often split into two or more species.

Taxonomy

Mitochondrial DNA sequence data is most similar to that of the very different-looking Green-winged Teal.[3] Apart from the mystifying relationship with the red-and-green-headed teals, it altogether most resembles the Indian Ocean radiation of teals. But the Yellow-billed Teal's unicolored underside and namesake bill are unique, as is to be expected from a species that evolved half a world apart from Bernier's or the Grey Teal.[4]

This species is also unique among its relatives in some aspects of its post-copulation behavior: After dismounting, the drakes stretch themselves up high and swim around and alongside the females.[5]

Traditionally, there are 4 subspecies:

* Merida Teal, Anas flavirostris altipetens – highlands of north-west Venezuela and adjacent parts of Colombia.
* Andean Teal, Anas flavirostris andium - highlands of Colombia and Ecuador.
* Sharp-winged Teal, Anas flavirostris oxyptera – highlands of central Peru to northern Chile and Argentina.
* Chilean Teal, Anas flavirostris flavirostris – southern South America as far north as southern Brazil and northern Argentina. Also in the Falklands.

Each of the above have been considered as separate species, but increasingly the two northern taxa altipetens and andium, which have a dark greyish bill, are considered as a single species, the Andean Teal (Anas andium, with altipetens as a subspecies).[6] In that case, the two remaining taxa, which have a largely yellow bill, are referred to as the Speckled or Yellow-billed Teal (Anas flavirostris, with oxyptera as a subspecies).

Footnotes

1. ^ Carboneras (1992), Johnson & Sorenson (1999), Johnson et al. (2000)
2. ^ Accordi & Barcellos (2006), BLI (2008)
3. ^ Johnson & Sorenson (1999); see there for a discussion of the crecca-carolinensis-flavirostris group's phylogeny.
4. ^ Carboneras (1992)
5. ^ Johnson et al. (2000)
6. ^ Van Remsen (2008)


References

* Accordi, Iury Almeida & Barcellos, André (2006): Composição da avifauna em oito áreas úmidas da Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul [Bird composition and conservation in eight wetlands of the hidrographic basin of Guaíba lake, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14(2): 101-115 [Portuguese with English abstract]. PDf fulltext
* BirdLife International (BLI) (2008). Anas flavirostris. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 18 November 2008.
* Carboneras, Carles (1992): 77. Speckled Teal. In: del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew & Sargatal, Jordi (eds.): Handbook of Birds of the World (Vol.1: Ostrich to Ducks): 603, plate 45. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-10-5
* Johnson, Kevin P. & Sorenson, Michael D. (1999): Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk 116(3): 792–805. DjVu fulltext PDF fulltext
* Johnson, Kevin P. McKinney, Frank; Wilson, Robert & Sorenson, Michael D. (2000): The evolution of postcopulatory displays in dabbling ducks (Anatini): a phylogenetic perspective. Animal Behaviour 59(5): 953–963 PDF fulltext
* Van Remsen (2008) Treat Anas andium as a separate species from Anas flavirostris. South American Classification Committee. Accessed 27-04-2008

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