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Anthracoceros montani

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Bucerotiformes

Familia: Bucerotidae
Genus: Anthracoceros
Species: Anthracoceros montani
Name

Anthracoceros montani (Oustalet, 1880)
References

IUCN: Anthracoceros montani (Critically Endangered)
Bulletin Hebdomadaire de l' Association Scientfique de France. (2) 2 p.205

Vernacular names
বাংলা: সুলু ধনেশ
brezhoneg: Kalao Sulu
čeština: Zoborožec sulský
dansk: Sulunæsehornsfugl
Deutsch: Suluhornvogel
English: Sulu Hornbill, Montano's Hornbill
español: Cálao de las Sulu
eesti: tawitawi sarvlind
suomi: Sulunsarvinokka
français: Calao des Sulu
magyar: sulu-szigeteki szarvascsőrű
italiano: Bucero di Sulu
日本語: ハシグロサイチョウ, hashigurosaichou
lietuvių: Kalninis ragasnapis
Nederlands: Sulu-neushoornvogel
norsk: Suluhornfugl
polski: Dzioborozec czarny
русский: Сулуанская птица-носорог
slovenčina: Zobákorožec talusi
svenska: Suluhornkorp
中文: 黑嘴斑犀鸟

The Sulu hornbill (Anthracoceros montani), or Montano's hornbill, is a species of hornbill in the family Bucerotidae. It is endemic to the Sulu archipelago in the Philippines, with the remaining populations in Tawi-Tawi with it believed to be hunted to extinction on Jolo. [1][3][4] Its natural habitat is tropical moist forests. It is threatened by habitat loss as well as potential harvesting for food.[1] Its diet includes fruit, insects, and small lizards.[3]

In 2019 it was reported that only 27 mature individual hornbills are still believed to be alive in the wild a making it one of the most endangered animals in the world.[5]
Description

EBird describes the bird as "A large bird of lowland and montane forest on the Sulu Islands, although probably only remaining on Tawi-Tawi. Feeds particularly on fig trees. One of the rarest birds in the world. Entirely black except for a white tail. Has a long, thick black bill, a black casque, and black bare skin around the eye. Male has pale eyes and female has brown eyes and a smaller casque. Unmistakable. The only hornbill in its range. Voice is a nasal cackling."[6]
Habitat and Conservation Status

It inhabits primary dipterocarp forest, typically on mountain slopes (although this may simply reflect a constraint enforced by forest loss), occasionally visiting isolated fruiting trees over 1 km from the nearest forest. It requires large trees for nesting. Whilst the species's diet mainly consists of fruit, small lizards and some insects may also be consumed.

IUCN has assessed this bird as critically endangered. In 2019 it was reported that only 27 mature individual hornbills are still believed to be alive in the wild.[5] This makes it the most endangered hornbill and one of the most endangered animals in the entire world. It has gone extinct on the island of Jolo, due to hunting and the remaining populations in Tawi-Tawi are threatened by habitat destruction through logging and slash-and-burn farming. [7]
References

BirdLife International (2020). "Anthracoceros montani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22682447A178062684. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22682447A178062684.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
"Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
Anthracoceros montani factsheet at BirdBase
"Sulu hornbill media". Internet Bird Collection.
Sarmiento, Bong (3 October 2019). "Race to conserve few remaining Sulu hornbills on". MindaNews. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
"Sulu Hornbill". Ebird.
Allen, Desmond (2020). Birds of the Philippines. Barcelona: Lynx and Birdlife International Field Guides. pp. 200–201.

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