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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Sylvioidea

Familia: Cisticolidae
Genus: Apalis
Species: A. alticola - A. argentea - A. bamendae - A. binotata - A. chapini - A. chariessa - A. chirindensis - A. cinerea - A. flavida - A. flavigularis - A. - fuscigularis - A. goslingi - A. jacksoni - A. kaboboensis - A. karamojae - A. lynesi - A. melanocephala - A. nigriceps - A. personata - A. porphyrolaema - A. ruddi - A. rufogularis - A. sharpei - A. thoracica.


Apalis Swainson, 1833

Zoological Illustrations (2) 3 pl.119,text

The apalises are small passerine birds belonging to the genus Apalis, in the family Cisticolidae. They are found in forest, woodlands and scrub across most parts of sub-Saharan Africa.[1] They are slender birds with long tails and have a slender bill for catching insects. They are typically brown, grey or green above and several species have brightly coloured underparts. Males and females are usually similar in appearance but the males are sometimes brighter.[1]

The genus was erected by the English naturalist William John Swainson in 1833. The type species is the bar-throated apalis.[2][3] The name Apalis is from the Ancient Greek hapalos meaning "delicate" or "gentle".[4] Apalises were traditionally classified in the Old World warbler family Sylviidae but are now commonly placed, together with several other groups of mainly African warblers, in a separate family Cisticolidae.[5]

There are about 24 species of apalis; the exact number varies according to differing authorities. The African tailorbird and long-billed tailorbird were formerly considered to be apalises but are now often placed either with the tailorbirds (Orthotomus) or in their own genus Artisornis.[1] The red-fronted prinia or red-faced apalis has also been moved into a different genus, Prinia.[6] Further shuffling may be necessary as a recent study[7] found the genus to be polyphyletic, with two species (black-collared and Ruwenzori apalises) only distantly related to the other three tested.
Species list

The genus contains 24 species:[8]

Bar-throated apalis, Apalis thoracica
Yellow-throated apalis, Apalis flavigularis
Taita apalis, Apalis fuscigularis
Namuli apalis, Apalis lynesi
Rudd's apalis, Apalis ruddi
Brown-tailed apalis, Apalis flavocincta[9]
Yellow-breasted apalis, Apalis flavida
Lowland masked apalis, Apalis binotata
Mountain masked apalis, Apalis personata
Black-throated apalis, Apalis jacksoni
White-winged apalis, Apalis chariessa
Black-capped apalis, Apalis nigriceps
Black-headed apalis, Apalis melanocephala
Chirinda apalis, Apalis chirindensis
Chestnut-throated apalis, Apalis porphyrolaema
Kabobo apalis, Apalis kaboboensis
Chapin's apalis or chestnut-headed apalis, Apalis chapini
Sharpe's apalis, Apalis sharpii
Buff-throated apalis, Apalis rufogularis
Kungwe apalis, Apalis argentea
Karamoja apalis, Apalis karamojae[10]
Bamenda apalis, Apalis bamendae
Gosling's apalis, Apalis goslingi
Grey apalis, Apalis cinerea
Brown-headed apalis, Apalis alticola

Formerly in Apalis but now moved to Oreolais:[11]

Black-collared apalis, Oreolais pulchra
Rwenzori apalis or collared apalis, Oreolais ruwenzorii


Sinclair, Ian; Ryan, Peter (2003). Birds of Africa south of the Sahara. Struik. pp. 512, 540. ISBN 1-86872-857-9.
Swainson, William John (1833). Zoological Illustrations, or original figures and descriptions of new, rare, or interesting Animals, selected chiefly from the classes of ornithology, entomology, and conchology and arranged according to their apparent affinities. Series 2. Volume 3. London: Baldwin and Cradock. Plate 119 text.
Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1986). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 11. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 154.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Roberson, Don. "Cisticolas & Allies Cisticolidae". Archived from the original on 21 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
Lepage, Denis. "Red-faced Apalis (Urorhipis rufifrons) (Rüppell, 1840)". Retrieved 2007-03-29.
Nguembock, B; Fjeldså, J.; Tillier, A.; Pasquet, E. (2007). "A phylogeny for the Cisticolidae (Aves: Passeriformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data, and a re-interpretation of an unique nest-building specialization". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 42 (1): 272–286. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.07.008. PMID 16949311.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Grassbirds, Donacobius, Malagasy warblers, cisticolas & allies". World Bird List Version 7.3. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
"Species Updates – IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 2021-06-18.
Shaw, Philip; Mungaya, Elias (2006). "The status and habitat of Karamoja Apalis Apalis karamojae in the Wembere Steppe, Sukumaland, Tanzania". Bird Conservation International. 16 (2): 97–111. doi:10.1017/S0959270906000049.

Nguembock, B.; Fjeldså, J.; Couloux, A.; Cruaud, C.; Pasquet, E. (2008). "Polyphyly of the genus Apalis and a new generic name for the species pulchra and ruwenzorii". Ibis. 150 (4): 756–765. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2008.00852.x.

Further reading
Ryan, Peter (2006). "Family Cisticolidae (Cisticolas and allies)". In del Hoyo J., Elliott A.; Christie D.A. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 378–492. ISBN 978-84-96553-06-4.

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