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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Psittacidae
Subfamilia: Psittacinae
Tribus: Arini
Genus: Aratinga
Species: A. auricapillus – A. jandaya – A. maculata – A. nenday – A. solstitialis – A. weddellii

Name

Aratinga Spix 1824
Typus

Psittacus solstitialis Linnaeus, 1758 = Aratinga solstitialis
Synonyms

Sittace Wagler, 1832
Nandayus Bonaparte, 1854

Primary references

Spix, J.B. von 1824. Avium species novae, quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX jussu et auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavariae regis augustissimi. Suscepto. Collegit et descripsit Dr. Joannes Bapt. de Spix. Curavit Martius, C.F.P. von. 1: 90 pp. + 104 tt. Illustrations: Matthias Schmidt. Ed. Monachii, Impensis Editoris, 1838. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.63181 Original description p.29 BHL Reference page.

References

Remsen, J.V., Jr., Schirtzinger, E.E., Ferraroni, A., Silveira, L.F. & Wright, T.F. 2013. DNA-sequence data require revision of the parrot genus Aratinga (Aves: Psittacidae). Zootaxa 3641(3): 296–300. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3641.3.9 Full article (PDF) Reference page.

Aratinga is a genus of South American conures. Most are predominantly green, although a few are predominantly yellow or orange. They are social and commonly seen in groups in the wild. In Brazil, the popular name of several species usually is jandaia, sometimes written as jandaya in the scientific form.

Many species from this genus are popular pets, although being larger than the members of the genus Pyrrhura, they need a sizable aviary to thrive.

The taxonomy of this genus has recently been resolved by splitting it in four genera, as the genus as previously defined was paraphyletic.[1][2][3][4][5] The species of the Aratinga solstitialis complex,[2][3] were retained in this genus, while other former Aratinga species were moved to Eupsittula (brownish-throated species), Psittacara (pale-beaked species) and Thectocercus (blue-crowned parakeet).[1] Furthermore, the closely related nanday parakeet (A. nenday) and the dusky-headed parakeet (A. weddellii) are placed in this genus. The nanday parakeet was previously placed in its own genus based on the differences in coloration and elongated upper mandible, but this was not supported by phylogenetic studies that showed a close relationship with the A. solstitialis species complex.[1]
Species

Aratinga
Common and binomial names[6] Image Description Native Range
Sun parakeet
or sun conure
(Aratinga solstitialis)
Aratinga solstitialis -Singapore BirdPark-6.jpg
30 cm (11 in) long. Mostly yellow, fading to orange over the head and belly. Yellow, green in the wing featuring cobalt-blue to blue-violet flight feathers and tail feathers. Black beak. South America[7][8]
Sulphur-breasted parakeet
(Aratinga maculata)
Aratinga maculata.jpg
Brazil and Suriname.[9][10]
Jandaya parakeet
or jenday conure
(Aratinga jandaya)
Aratinga Jandaya -in tree-8.jpg
Orange and yellow with green wings and back. Black beak. Brazil[11][12]
Golden-capped parakeet
(Aratinga auricapillus)
Aratinga auricapilla (Wroclaw zoo)-1.JPG
30 (12 in) long. Mostly green. Black beak. Orange-red belly, red face fading to yellow over the crown.[13] Brazil[14]
Dusky-headed parakeet
Weddell's conure or
dusky-headed conure
(Aratinga weddellii)
Aratinga weddellii -Beale Park, Reading, Berkshire, England-8a-4c.jpg
25–28 cm (10–11 in). Mostly green. Black beak. A grey-brown head, a blue-tipped tail and remiges. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru[15][16]
Nanday parakeet
(Aratinga nenday)
2011-4 parrot in Strasbourg.jpg
Mostly green. Black facial mask and beak. Black trailing flight feathers on wings and long tail edged at the end in blue. Upper chest is bluish-green and lower chest is a paler green. Feathers covering the thighs red.

.

southeast Bolivia to southwest Brazil, central Paraguay and northern Argentina.[17][18]
Aratinga vorohuensis
extinct. Described from Late Pliocene fossils found in Argentina.[19]

Hypothetical extinct species

Jean-Baptiste Labat described a population of small parrots living on Guadeloupe, which has been postulated to be a separate species based on little evidence. They were called Conurus labati, and are now referred to as the Guadeloupe parakeet (Aratinga labati). No specimens or remains of the extinct parrots are known. Their taxonomy may never be fully elucidated, so their postulated status as a separate species is hypothetical, and it is regarded as a hypothetical extinct species.[20]
References

Remsen, Jr., J.V.; Schirtzinger, E.E.; Ferraroni, Anna; Silveira, Luís Fábio; & Wright, Timothy F. (24 April 2013). DNA-sequence data require revision of the parrot genus Aratinga (Aves: Psittacidae). Zootaxa 3641(3) 296–300. {{doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3641.3.9}}
Ribas, Camila C.; Miyaki, Cristina Y. (2004). "Molecular systematics in Aratinga parakeets: species limits and historical biogeography in the 'solstitialis' group, and the systematic position of Nandayus nenday". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 663–75. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00223-9. PMID 15012946.
Silverira, L.; Höfling, E. (2005). "A new species of Aratinga Parakeet (Psittaformes: Psittacidae) from Brazil, with taxonomical remarks on the Aratinga solstitialis complex". The Auk. 122 (1): 292–305. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0292:ANSOAP]2.0.CO;2.
Tavares ES; Baker AJ; Pereira SL; Miyaki CY (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of Neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes : Psittacidae : Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences". Systematic Biology. 55 (3): 454–470. doi:10.1080/10635150600697390. PMID 16861209.
Collar, N.J. (1997). J. del Hoyo; A. Elliot; J. Sargatal (eds.). Family Psittacidae. Handbook of the Birds of the World. 4. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. pp. 280–479.
"Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Psittaciformes (Version 9.013)". www.zoonomen.net. 2008-12-29.
"Sun Parakeet - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 3 January 2009.
BirdLife International 2008. Aratinga solstitialis. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
"Sulphur-breasted Parakeet - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 28 August 2016.
BirdLife International 2008. Aratinga maculata. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
"Jandaya Parakeet - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 3 January 2009.
BirdLife International 2008. Aratinga jandaya. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
"Golden-capped Parakeet - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 3 January 2009.
BirdLife International 2008. Aratinga auricapillus. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
"Dusky-headed Parakeet - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 3 January 2009.
BirdLife International 2008. Aratinga weddellii. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
"Nanday Parakeet - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 28 August 2016.
BirdLife International 2008. Aratinga nenday. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
Eduardo P. Tonni & Jorge I. Noriega (1996). "Una nueva especia de Nandayus Bonaparte, 1854 (Aves: Psittaciformes) del Pliocene tardío de Argentina" [A new species of Nandayus Bonaparte (Aves: Psittaciformes) from the Late Pliocene of Argentina] (PDF). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (in Spanish). 69: 97–104.
Fuller, Errol (1987). Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England). p. 131. ISBN 978-0-670-81787-0.

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