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Calidris melanotos

Calidris melanotos (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Charadrii

Familia: Scolopacidae
Genus: Calidris
Species: Calidris melanotos
Name

Calidris melanotos (Vieillot, 1819)
Synonymy

Tringa melanotos (protonym)

References

Vieillot, L.J.P. 1819. Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l'agriculture, à l'économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc. Par une société de naturalistes et d'agriculteurs. Avec des figures tirées des trois règnes de la nature. Tome 34. 578 pp. + 9 tt. Déterville, Paris. p. 462 BHL Reference page. .

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Geelpootstrandloper
العربية: دريجة سوداء الظهر
asturianu: Mazaricu Americanu
azərbaycanca: Du-du qumluqca
български: Цветногръд брегобегач
brezhoneg: Sourouc'han petralek
català: Territ pectoral
čeština: Jespák skvrnitý
Cymraeg: Pibydd cain
dansk: Stribet ryle
Deutsch: Graubruststrandläufer
Ελληνικά: Πατσαλονεραλλίδι
English: Pectoral Sandpiper
Esperanto: Striokalidro
español: Correlimos pectoral
eesti: Kiripugu-rüdi
euskara: Txirri pektoral
فارسی: یلوه آمریکایی
suomi: Palsasirri
føroyskt: Sjógrælingur
français: Bécasseau à poitrine cendrée
Gaeilge: Gobadán Uchtach
galego: Pilro peitoral
Avañe'ẽ: Chululu'i
Gaelg: Looyran brollagh
עברית: חופית כהת-חזה
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bekasin fal nwa
magyar: Vándor partfutó
Iñupiak: Aiviqiak
íslenska: Rákatíta
italiano: Piro-piro pettorale
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: Shigeriakjuk
日本語: アメリカウズラシギ
kalaallisut: Tweetwee-nyuak
한국어: 아메리카메추라기도요
lietuvių: Raibakrūtis bėgikas
Nederlands: Gestreepte strandloper
norsk nynorsk: Alaskasnipe
norsk: Alaskasnipe
Diné bizaad: Tábąąsdísístłʼinii bitéél łikizhígíí
polski: Biegus arktyczny
پنجابی: پیکٹورل ریتپائیپر
português do Brasil: Maçarico-de-colete
português: Pilrito-peitoral
rumantsch: Rivarel puppen grisch
русский: Дутыш
slovenčina: Pobrežník škvrnitý
slovenščina: Prekmorski prodnik
svenska: Tuvsnäppa
Türkçe: Çizgili kum kuşu
Tiếng Việt: Choắt ngực đốm
中文: 美洲尖尾濱鷸

The pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos) is a small, migratory wader that breeds in North America and Asia, wintering in South America and Oceania. It eats small invertebrates. Its nest, a hole scraped in the ground and with a thick lining, is deep enough to protect its four eggs from the cool breezes of its breeding grounds. The pectoral sandpiper is 21 cm (8.3 in) long, with a wingspan of 46 cm (18 in).

Taxonomy

The pectoral sandpiper is sometimes separated with the "stint" sandpipers in Erolia. This may or may not represent a good monophyletic group, depending on the placement of the phylogenetically enigmatic curlew sandpiper ("C." ferruginea), the type species of Erolia. In any case, the genus name Ereunetes—formerly used for the western sandpiper ("C." mauri) and semipalmated sandpiper ("C." pusilla), which are also members of the stint clade—was established before Erolia.

"Cox's sandpiper" ("Calidris" × paramelanotos) is a stereotyped hybrid between this species and the curlew sandpiper. This does not prove a particularly close relationship between these two species, as far more distantly related waders have successfully hybridized. In any case, among the stint clade the red-necked stint ("C." ruficollis) and the long-toed stint ("C." subminuta) are particularly close relatives of the pectoral sandpiper.[2]

The scientific name is from Ancient Greek. The genus name kalidris or skalidris, is a term used by Aristotle for some gray-colored waterside birds. The specific melanotos is from melas, "black" and notos, "backed ".[3]
Description
Adult in breeding plumage; note sharp margin of breast colour

This bird looks similar to the widely sympatric sharp-tailed sandpiper ("C." acuminata), which is not a member of the stint clade however. The pectoral sandpiper is a largish calidrid (21 cm (8.3 in) in length, with a wingspan of 46 cm (18 in))[4] with a grey-brown back, brownest in the summer male, and grayest in winter. The pectoral sandpiper has a grey breast, sharply demarcated at its lower edge, which gives this species its English name; this clear dividing line is particularly conspicuous if the birds are turned towards the observer. The legs are yellowish, and the bill is olive with a darker tip.

The juveniles are more brightly patterned above with rufous coloration and white mantle stripes.

This species differs from the sharp-tailed sandpiper in its breast pattern, weaker supercilium and grayer crown.

Standard Measurements[5][6]
length 200–240 mm (8–9.6 in)
weight 73 g (2.6 oz)
wingspan 460 mm (18 in)
wing 136–142.8 mm (5.35–5.62 in)
tail 60.4–63.9 mm (2.38–2.52 in)
culmen 28.7–29.3 mm (1.13–1.15 in)
tarsus 27.8–30 mm (1.09–1.18 in)

Distribution and ecology
Pectoral Sandpiper
At Cosumnes River Preserve in Sacramento County, California.

It is a very long-distance migrant, and about half of the species breeds in the boggy tundra of northeast Asia, the rest nesting in a range from Alaska to central Canada.[7] The American and most of the Asian birds winter in South America, but some Asian breeders winter in southern and Australia and New Zealand. On migration and in winter, the pectoral sandpiper is typically found in freshwater habitats.

This species also occurs as a regular migrant to western Europe, and is seen most years in Ireland or Great Britain.[8] While the pectoral sandpiper has not been recorded as breeding species in Europe, vagrant individuals were found in Scotland in suitable breeding habitat during summer.[9] Many of the birds occurring in Western Europe may be on a regular migration from Asian breeding grounds to winter in Southern Africa.[10] September 2003 saw a record influx to those two countries, with 40 found in Ireland and 150 in Great Britain. On the US Pacific coast, such stagings of migrant flocks appear to be rarer.[11] Vagrant individuals are sometimes seen elsewhere off the usual migration routes, e.g. on the Marianas, the Marshall Islands and Palau in Micronesia; they are somewhat more frequently encountered on the Hawaiian Islands.[12][13][14]

The pectoral sandpiper's migration might be affected by global warming, as is suspected for many Arctic-breeding birds: 100 years ago, migrating pectoral sandpipers were observed to pass through northern Ohio in early-mid May and again in late August; today, the bulk of the northward migration takes place in April already, and most birds do not return until mid-September.[15][16]

These birds forage on grasslands and mudflats, picking up food by sight, sometimes by probing. They mainly eat arthropods and other invertebrates. The male has a courtship display which involves puffing up his breast, which has a fat sac in the breeding season to enhance his performance.

The pectoral sandpiper builds a steep-sided scrape nest with a considerable volume of lining material. The nest is deep enough that the eggs sit about 3 cm (1.2 in) below ground level, which helps to minimize heat loss from the cool breezes which occur at the latitudes where the species nests.[17] The female lays four eggs.

Pectoral sandpipers have decreased in number 50% since 1974.[18]
References

BirdLife International (2016). "Calidris melanotos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22693408A93404396. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22693408A93404396.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
Thomas, Gavin H.; Wills, Matthew A.; Székely, Tamás (2004). "A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 4: 28. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-28. PMC 515296. PMID 15329156. Supplementary Material
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 84, 248. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Robinson, R.A. "Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos". BirdFacts: profiles of birds occurring in Britain & Ireland (BTO Research Report 407). Thetford: bto.org. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
Godfrey, W. Earl (1966). The Birds of Canada. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada. p. 152.
Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Knopf. p. 184. ISBN 0-679-45122-6.
"TAXON: Pectoral Sandpiper, Calidris melanotos". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
Harrison, Graham; Harrison, Janet (2005). The New Birds of the West Midlands. West Midland Bird Club. ISBN 0-9507881-2-0. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009.
Vittery, Alan (1997). The Birds of Sutherland. Colin Baxter Photography. ISBN 1-900455-18-8.
Lees, A.C.; Gilroy, J.G. (2004). "Pectoral Sandpipers in Europe: vagrancy patterns and the influx of 2003". British Birds. 97 (12): 638–646.
For example the species was described as "unusual" in San Mateo County, California in the late 19th century, despite nearby San Francisco Bay offering excellent stopover habitat: Littlejohn, Chase (1916): Some unusual records for San Mateo County, California. Presentation at Cooper Club Northern Division Monthly Meeting, November 18, 1915. Abstract in "Minutes of Cooper Club Meeting" (PDF). Condor. 18 (1): 38–40. 1916. doi:10.2307/1362896. JSTOR 1362896.
Wiles, Gary J.; Johnson, Nathan C.; de Cruz, Justine B.; Dutson, Guy; Camacho, Vicente A.; Kepler, Angela Kay; Vice, Daniel S.; Garrett, Kimball L.; Kessler, Curt C.; Pratt, H. Douglas (2004). "New and Noteworthy Bird Records for Micronesia, 1986–2003". Micronesica. 37 (1): 69–96.
VanderWerf, Eric A. (2006). "Observations on the birds of Kwajalein Atoll, including six new species records for the Marshall Islands". Micronesica. 38 (2): 221–237.
VanderWerf, Eric A.; Wiles, Gary J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Knecht, Melia (2006). "Observations of migrants and other birds in Palau, April–May 2005, including the first Micronesian record of a Richard's Pipit". Micronesica. 39 (1): 11–29.
Henninger, W.F. (1906). "A preliminary list of the birds of Seneca County, Ohio" (PDF). Wilson Bulletin. 18 (2): 47–60.
"Annotated Ohio state checklist" (PDF). Ohio Ornithological Society. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2004.
Reid, J.M.; Cresswell, W.; Holt, S.; Mellanby, R.J.; Whitfield, D.P.; Ruxton, G.D. (2002). "Nest scrape design and clutch heat loss in Pectoral Sandpiper (Calidris melanotos)". Functional Ecology. 16 (3): 305–312. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2435.2002.00632.x.

Fitzpatrick, John W. (2018-04-27). "Opinion | Shorebirds, the World's Greatest Travelers, Face Extinction". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-04-27.

Further reading
Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony (1986). Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-60237-8.

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