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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Piciformes

Familia: Picidae
Subfamilia: Picinae
Genus: Campephilus
Species: C. gayaquilensis – C. guatemalensis – C. haematogaster – C. leucopogon – C. magellanicus – C. melanoleucos – C. pollens – C. robustus – C. rubricollis

Species extinctae: †C. imperialis – †C. principalis
Name

Campephilus G. R. Gray, 1840
Typus

Picus principalis Linnaeus, 1758, = Campephilus principalis

References

A list of the genera of birds: 54.

Campephilus is a genus of large American woodpeckers in the family Picidae.[1]

Taxonomy

The genus Campephilus was introduced by English zoologist George Robert Gray in 1840, with the ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) as the type species.[2] The genus name combines the Ancient Greek kampē meaning "caterpillar" and philos meaning "loving".[3] The genus is placed in the tribe Campephilini in the subfamily Picinae and is sister to a clade containing woodpeckers from Southeast Asia in the genera Chrysocolaptes, Blythipicus, and Reinwardtipicus.[4]
Species

The genus contains 11 species:[5]

Powerful woodpecker, Campephilus pollens
Crimson-bellied woodpecker, Campephilus haematogaster
Red-necked woodpecker, Campephilus rubricollis
Robust woodpecker, Campephilus robustus
Crimson-crested woodpecker, Campephilus melanoleucos
Guayaquil woodpecker, Campephilus gayaquilensis
Pale-billed woodpecker, Campephilus guatemalensis
Cream-backed woodpecker, Campephilus leucopogon
Magellanic woodpecker, Campephilus magellanicus
Ivory-billed woodpecker, Campephilus principalis – possibly extinct (1987)
Imperial woodpecker, Campephilus imperialis – probably extinct (1956)

A fossil species, C. dalquesti, was described from bones found in Late Pleistocene deposits of Scurry County, Texas.
References

Benz, Brett W.; Robbins, Mark B. & Peterson, A. Townsend (2006): Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): Placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 389–399. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.021
Gray, George Robert (1840). A List of the Genera of Birds : with an Indication of the Typical Species of Each Genus. London: R. and J.E. Taylor. p. 54.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Shakya, S.B.; Fuchs, J.; Pons, J.M.; Sheldon, F.H. (2017). "Tapping the woodpecker tree for evolutionary insight". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 116: 182–191. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.09.005.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Woodpeckers". World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 10 August 2019.

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Biology Encyclopedia

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