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Cinclus mexicanus

Cinclus mexicanus (United States Fish and Wildlife Service)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Muscicapoidea

Familia: Cinclidae
Genus: Cinclus
Species: Cinclus mexicanus
Subspecies: C. m. anthonyi – C. m. ardesiacus – C. m. dickermani – C. m. mexicanus – C. m. unicolor
Name

Cinclus mexicanus Swainson, 1827
References

The Philosophical Magazine 2nd Series 1: 368.

Vernacular names
български: Американски воден кос
català: Merla d'aigua americana
Cymraeg: Trochwr llwyd
Deutsch: Grauwasseramsel
English: American Dipper
Esperanto: Nordamerika cinklo
español: Mirlo acuático americano
فارسی: زیرآبروک آمریکایی
suomi: Amerikankoskikara
français: Cincle d'Amérique
עברית: אמודאי אמריקני
magyar: Szürke vízirigó
italiano: Merlo acquaiolo americano
日本語: メキシコカワガラス
кырык мары: Америка куплагы
Nederlands: Noord-Amerikaanse waterspreeuw
polski: Pluszcz meksykański
پنجابی: امریکی چبی مار
русский: Американская оляпка
svenska: Grå strömstare
українська: Пронурок американський
Tiếng Việt: Hét nước Mỹ

The American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), also known as a water ouzel, is a stocky dark grey bird with a head sometimes tinged with brown, and white feathers on the eyelids that cause the eyes to flash white as the bird blinks. It is 16.5 cm (6.5 in) long, has a wingspan of 23 cm (9.1 in),[2] and weighs on average 46 g (1.6 oz). It has long legs, and bobs its whole body up and down during pauses as it feeds on the bottom of fast-moving, rocky streams. It inhabits the mountainous regions of Central America and western North America from Panama to Alaska.

Taxonomy

The American dipper was described by the English zoologist William John Swainson in 1827 and given the binomial name Cinclus mexicanus.[3] The type locality is Temascaltepec de González in Mexico.[4]

There are five subspecies:[5]

C. m. unicolor Bonaparte, 1827 – Alaska, west Canada and west USA
C. m. mexicanus Swainson, 1827 – north and central Mexico
C. m. anthonyi Griscom, 1930 – southeast Mexico, southwest Guatemala, east Honduras and northwest Nicaragua
C. m. dickermani Phillips, AR, 1966 – south Mexico
C. m. ardesiacus Salvin, 1867 – Costa Rica and west Panama

Description

This species, like other dippers, is equipped with an extra eyelid called a nictitating membrane that allows it to see underwater, and scales that close its nostrils when submerged. Dippers also produce more oil than most birds, which may help keep them warmer when seeking food underwater.

The song consists of high whistles or trills peee peee pijur pijur repeated a few times. Both sexes of this bird sing year round.
Distribution and habitat

The American dipper is usually a permanent resident, moving slightly south or to lower elevations if necessary to find food or unfrozen water. The presence of this indicator species shows good water quality; it has vanished from some locations due to pollution or increased silt load in streams.
Behaviour

The American dipper defends a linear territory along streams. In most of its habits, it closely resembles its European counterpart, the white-throated dipper, Cinclus cinclus, which is also sometimes known as a Water Ouzel.
Breeding

The American dipper's nest is a globe-shaped structure with a side entrance, close to water, on a rock ledge, river bank, behind a waterfall or under a bridge. The normal clutch is 2–4 white eggs, incubated solely by the female, which hatch after about 15–17 days, with another 20–25 days to fledging. The male helps to feed the young. The maximum recorded age from ring-recovery data of an American dipper is 8 years and 1 month for a bird ringed and recovered in South Dakota.[6]
Feeding

It feeds on aquatic insects and their larvae, including dragonfly nymphs, small crayfish, and caddisfly larvae. It may also take tiny fish or tadpoles.

Its habit of diving underwater in search of food can infrequently make it the prey of large salmonids like bull or Dolly Varden trout.[7]
History

The American dipper, previously known as the Water-Ouzel, was the favorite bird of famous naturalist John Muir. He dedicated an entire chapter in his book 'The Mountains of California' to the Ouzel stating "He is the mountain streams' own darling, the humming-bird of blooming waters, loving rocky ripple-slopes and sheets of foam as a bee loves flowers, as a lark loves sunshine and meadows. Among all the mountain birds, none has cheered me so much in my lonely wanderings, —none so unfailingly. For both in winter and summer he sings, sweetly, cheerily, independent alike of sunshine and of love, requiring no other inspiration than the stream on which he dwells. While water sings, so must he, in heat or cold, calm or storm, ever attuning his voice in sure accord; low in the drought of summer and the drought of winter, but never silent."[8]
References

BirdLife International (2016). "Cinclus mexicanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22708163A94152063. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22708163A94152063.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
Oiseaux.net. "Cincle d'Amérique - Cinclus mexicanus - American Dipper". www.oiseaux.net. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
Swainson, William John (1827). "A synopsis of birds discovered in Mexico by W. Bullock F.L.S. and H.S. and Mr. William Bullock, jun". Philosophical Magazine. New series. 1: 364–370 [368]. doi:10.1080/14786442708674330.
Mayr, Ernst; Greenway, James C. Jr, eds. (1960). Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. 9. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 378.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Dippers, leafbirds, flowerpeckers, sunbirds". World Bird List Version 9.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
"Longevity Records of North American Birds". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
Elliott, Charles L.; Peck, Steve (December 1980). "Dipper swallowed by trout" (PDF). Wilson Bulletin. 92 (4): 524. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-29. Retrieved 2010-07-02.

"American Dipper or Water-Ouzel". USDA Forest Service - Boise National Forest. Retrieved 9 September 2021.

Erlich et al. The Birder's Handbook
Stiles and Skutch, A guide to the birds of Costa Rica ISBN 0-8014-9600-4

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