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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Palaeognathae
Ordo: Tinamiformes

Familia: Tinamidae
Genus: Crypturellus
Species: C. atrocapillus – C. bartletti – C. berlepschi – C. boucardi – C. brevirostris – C. casiquiare – C. cinereus – C. cinnamomeus – C. duidae – C. erythropus – C. kerriae – C. noctivagus – C. obsoletus – C. parvirostris – C. ptaritepui – C. soui - C. strigulosus - C. tataupa – C. transfasciatus – C. undulatus
C. cinereus - C. cinnamomeus - C. duidae - C. erythropus - C. kerriae - C. noctivagus - C. obsoletus - C. parvirostris - C. ptaritepui - C. soui - C. strigulosus - C. tataupa - C. transfasciatus - C. undulatus - C. variegatus

Name

Crypturellus Brabourne & Chubb, 1914
Vernacular names
lietuvių: Slėptauodegiai tinamai
References

Ann.Mag.Nat.Hist.(8) 14 p.322

Crypturellus is a genus of tinamous containing mostly forest species. However, there are the odd few that are grassland or steppe tinamous. There are 21 species of and a total of 67 taxa (species and sub-species).

Etymology

Crypturellus is formed from the Greek words κρυπτός (kruptós), "covered" or "hidden", οὐρά (ourá), "tail", and -ellus, a Latin diminutive suffix. The genus name Crypturellus therefore means "small hidden tail".[2]
Description

Crypturellus members, like other tinamous, have a cryptic color scheme dominated by browns, buffs, yellows, and greys. Unlike the rest of the family, these birds show some sexual dimorphism: the females are more heavily barred than the males and are also a bit brighter and larger.
Range

The majority of species occupy forests or rain forests, preferring lower elevations. They range from Uruguay to Mexico. However, the earliest known occurrence of the genus is a fossil humerus, described as Crypturellus reai, from the Early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation of Patagonia.[3]
Vocalization

Crypturellus are a very loud group of birds with melodious calls. They tend to use lower frequency when they call than other members of the Tinamou. Males and females have different calls and each species also has different calls. Normally each sex will have a long and a short phrase call.[4] The genus can be grouped into two partial groups based on the similarity of their calls.[5]

Group 1
Undulated tinamou
Red-legged tinamou
Yellow-legged tinamou
Group 2
Brown tinamou
Small-billed tinamou
Tataupa tinamou

Some, like the slaty-breasted tinamou are quiet and hide during the middle of the day, choosing this time to take naps and conserve energy. The slaty-breasted tinamous also have a unique call amongst themselves, so much so that individual birds can be recognized by their calls. Most members of the genus have a variation in their calls, within the species, based on their geographical location. They also are known to use regular calling sites.[4]
Feeding

Similar to other forest tinamou, the members of this genus prefer to eat fleshy fruit; however like tinamous in general they are opportunistic and will eat a variety of foods including insects, which they have been known to leap 1 metre (39 in) high to obtain[4]
Breeding

Courtship technique for the members of Crypturellus consists of the male lowering his breast to the ground, stretching his neck forward and raising his posterior vertically. This will cause the male to appear larger and longer than normal, which not only impresses the female but also benefits the male in that it scares away competitors.

Females outnumber the males with some of the species, such as the variegated tinamou, having a 4:1 female-to-male ratio. They also only have a 2-egg clutch, which would explain why they are one of the species that have multiple clutches.[4]

Once copulation has taken place, the female will choose a nest site that is typically a depression covered with leaves next to a tree trunk, usually between a couple of buttresses. Members of the genus that are savanna style birds such as the small-billed tinamou will instead lay their eggs in a cavity near a clump of grass. The eggs are oval or elliptical on the smaller birds and near spherical in the larger birds, such as the undulated tinamou and the Brazilian tinamou. The colorings of the eggs are varied, but in general are brightly colored with no splotches or spots; the colors fade over time and usually will change to a less overt color midway through the incubation period. The predominate colors are chocolate or red wine with the eggs of yellow-legged tinamou, undulated tinamou, little tinamou, and red-legged tinamou using different color schemes.[5]

Clutch size can be upwards of 9-16 eggs, however these larger clutches are the products of multiple females.[5] The male will incubate and care for the young. Incubation takes about 16 days. If he dies, the female will take over. When the chicks cross cleared areas, they will run like the chicks of rails. Some members of the genus mature rapidly, like the slaty-breasted tinamou which can gain adult size (not weight) by 20 days.[4]
Relationships

Here is a cladogram of the relationship of species within Crypturellus, from an integumentary phylogenetic study on the Tinamidae, 2013.[6]

Crypturellus

Crypturellus transfasciatus

Crypturellus cinnamomeus

Crypturellus undulatus

Crypturellus erythropus

Crypturellus duidae

Crypturellus noctivagus

Crypturellus variegatus

Crypturellus casiquiare

Crypturellus brevirostris

Crypturellus bartletti

Crypturellus atrocapillus

Crypturellus kerriae

Crypturellus boucardi

Crypturellus strigulosus

Crypturellus cinereus

Crypturellus berlepschi

Crypturellus ptaritepui

Crypturellus soui

Crypturellus obsoletus

Crypturellus parvirostris

Crypturellus tataupa

Crypturellus parvirostris and Crypturellus tataupa are also the most derived species on a tree of the entire Paleognathae.[7]
Species

Sources:[8][9]

Footnotes

Brands, Sheila (Apr 7, 2012). "Taxon: Genus Crypturellus". System Naturae 2000. Netherlands: Taxonomicon. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.
Gotch, A. F. (1995)
Chandler, Robert M. (2012). "A New Species of Tinamou (Aves: Tinamiformes, Tinamidae) from the Early-Middle Miocene of Argentina" (PDF). PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 9 (2): 1–8.
Cabot, J.; Carboneras, C.; Folch, A.; de Juanca, E.; Llimona, F.; Matheu, E. (1992). "Tinamiformes". In del Hoyo, J. (ed.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. I: Ostrich to Ducks. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions.
Sick, H. (1993). Birds in Brazil, a Natural History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
269873992_On_the_use_of_intergumentary_characters_in_bird_phylogeny_the_case_of Tinamus_osgoodi_Palaeognathae_Tinamidae_and_plumage_character_coding
269873992_On_the_use_of_intergumentary_characters_in_bird_phylogeny_the_case_of Tinamus_osgoodi_Palaeognathae_Tinamidae_and_plumage_character_coding
Mikko's Phylogeny Archive [1] Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Tinamiformes - tinamous". Retrieved 30 December 2015.
Paleofile.com (net, info) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-11. Retrieved 2015-12-30.. "Taxonomic lists- Aves". Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
Clements, J (2007)

SACC (2008)

References
Brands, Sheila (Aug 14, 2008). "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Genus Crypturellus". Project: The Taxonomicon. Archived from the original on November 5, 2007. Retrieved Feb 7, 2009.
Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6 ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
Gotch, A. F. (1995) [1979]. "Tinamous". Latin Names Explained. A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 183. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3.
Remsen Jr., J. V.; et al. (7 Aug 2008). "Classification of birds of South America Part 01:". South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 4 Feb 2009.

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