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Dicrurus leucophaeus

Dicrurus leucophaeus (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Parvordo: Corvida
Superfamilia: Corvoidea
Familia: Dicruridae
Genus: Dicrurus
Species: Dicrurus leucophaeus
Subspecies: D. l. batakensis - D. l. bondi - D. l. celaenus - D. l. hopwoodi - D. l. innexus - D. l. leucogenis - D. l. leucophaeus - D. l. longicaudatus - D. l. mouhoti - D. l. nigrescens - D. l. periophthalmicus - D. l. phaedrus - D. l. salangensis - D. l. siberu - D. l. stigmatops

Name

Dicrurus leucophaeus Vieillot, 1817

Vernacular names
Internationalization
English: Ashy Drongo


Reference

Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle Appliquée Aux Arts, principalement à l'Agriculture et à l'Economie rurale et domestique par une société de naturalistes et d'agriculteurs, avec des figures tirées des trois règnes de la nature. 9 p.587

The Ashy Drongo (Dicrurus leucophaeus) is a species of bird in the drongo family Dicruridae. It is found widely distributed across South and Southeast Asia with several populations that vary in the shade of grey, migration patterns and in the size or presence of a white patch around the eye.

Description


The adult Ashy Drongo is mainly dark grey, and the tail is long and deeply forked, There are a number of subspecies varying in the shade of the grey plumage. Some subspecies have white markings on the head. Young birds are dull brownish grey.

Subspecies longicaudatus of India (which includes beavani of the Himalayas that winters on the peninsula, with one breeding population in central India that Vaurie separates as longicaudatus in the restricted sense) is very dark and almost like the Black Drongo although this bird is slimmer and has a somewhat longer and less-splayed tail. It is found in more tall forest habitat, has dark grey underside lacking the sheen of Black Drongo. The iris is crimson and there is no white rictal spot. Subspecies leucogenis and salangensis have a white eye-patch as do several of the island forms that breed further south. The calls are a little more nasal and twangy than that of the Black Drongo.[3]

Distribution

The Ashy Drongo breeds in the hills of tropical southern Asia from eastern Afghanistan east to southern China and Indonesia. Many populations in the northern part of its range are migratory. Charles Vaurie described subspecies beavani (after Robert Cecil Beavan[4]) as the population that breeds along the Himalayas that wintered in peninsular India. However later workers include this as part of longicaudatus which also has a population that breeds in central India.[3] In winter, the species is particularly fond of hill forests.[5] E. C. Stuart Baker described stevensi which Vaurie considered as being either beavani or hopwoodi of the eastern Himalayas. To the east of the range of hopwoodi is mouhouti of Thailand and Myanmar. To the north of this range are leucogenis and salangensis (both migratory mainly to areas further south but also known to the west in Nagaland[6]) while bondi is found to the south. Along the southeast Asian island chain, there are number of insular populations including periophthalmus, batakensis, phaedrus, siberu and nigrescens. The nominate form is said to be found on Simalur, Java, Bali, Lombok, Palawan, and Balabac Islands.[2]

Behaviour and ecology

The Ashy Drongo has short legs and sits very upright while perched prominently, often high on a tree. It is insectivorous and forages by making aerial sallies but sometimes gleans from tree trunks.[7] They are found singly, in pairs or small groups. During migration they fly in small flocks.[5]

A common call that they make is described as drangh gip or gip-gip-drangh.[5] They can imitate the calls of other birds and are capable of imitating the whistling notes of a Common Iora.[8]

The breeding season is May to June with a clutch of three or four reddish or brown eggs laid in a loose cup nest in a tree.[5][9]

References

1. ^ BirdLife International (2008). Dicrurus leucophaeus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 24 Oct 2009.
2. ^ a b Vaurie, Charles. (1949). "A revision of the bird family Dicruridae". Bulletin of the AMNH 93 (4): 203–342. http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1240.
3. ^ a b Rasmussen, PC & JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions. p. 590.
4. ^ Beavan, RC (1868). "[Letter to the "Editor of The Ibis."]". Ibis: 497.
5. ^ a b c d Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular Handbook of Indian Birds. Edition 4. Gurney and Jackson, London. pp. 158–159. http://www.archive.org/stream/popularhandbooko033226mbp#page/n199/mode/2up.
6. ^ Das,PK (1965). "The Whitecheeked Drongo [Dicrurus leucophaeus salangensis (Reichenow)]: an addition to the Indian avifauna". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 62 (3): 557–558.
7. ^ Santharam,V (1999). "Birds foraging on tree trunks". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 96 (3): 468–469.
8. ^ Khacher,Lavkumar (1997). "Mimicry by Grey Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 94 (3): 569.
9. ^ Ali, S & SD Ripley (1986). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. 5 (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. =119-122.

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