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Picidae - Dinopium rafflesii

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Piciformes

Familia: Picidae
Subfamilia: Picinae
Genus: Dinopium
Species: Dinopium rafflesii
Subspecies D. r. dulitense – D. r. rafflesii

Dinopium rafflesii (Vigors, 1830: 669) [org. comb. Picus Rafflesii]

Vigors, N.A., 1830: In: N.A. Vigors & T. Horsfield, 1830. Catalogue of zoological collections: 633–697. In: S. Raffles, 1830. Memoir of the life and public service of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, FRS: i-xvi, 1-723. London. [original description: p. 669]

Vernacular names
العربية: نقار خشب زيتوني الخلف
Deutsch: Olivrückenspecht
English: Olive-backed Woodpecker
español: Pito dorsioliva
suomi: Aarnitulitöyhtö
français: Pic oriflamme
magyar: Maláj küllő
Bahasa Melayu: Burung Belatuk Rimba
Nederlands: Olijfbuikspecht
svenska: Olivryggig sultanspett

The olive-backed woodpecker (Gecinulus rafflesii) is a species of bird in the woodpecker family Picidae that is found in Southeast Asia.


The olive-backed woodpecker was described by the Irish zoologist Nicholas Aylward Vigors in 1830 from a specimen collected by Stamford Raffles. Vigors coined the binomial name Picus rafflesii,[2][3] with the specific epithet chosen to honour the memory of Raffles.[4] The type location is Sumatra.[5] The species is now placed in the genus Dinopium that was introduced by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1814.[6][7]

A large phylogenetic study of the woodpecker family Picidae published in 2017 found that the olive-backed woodpecker (Gecinulus rafflesii) is more closely related to the pale-headed woodpecker (Gecinulus grantia).[8] It may, therefore, be more appropriately assigned to the genus Chloropicoides.[9]

Two subspecies are recognised:[7]

G. r. rafflesii (Vigors, 1830) – south Myanmar, southwest Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Bangka Island (east of Sumatra)
G. r. dulitense Delacour, 1946 – Borneo


The olive-backed woodpecker has yellow-green upperparts and gray-olive underparts. The side of the head has two black and white stripes. The male has a large red crest, the female has a smaller black crest.[10]
Distribution and habitat

The olive-backed woodpecker has a wide range in Southeast Asia, occurring in Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, and Indonesia (on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra). Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland, mangrove and montane forests; the species avoids clearings and secondary forest.[11]

Gecinulus rafflesii is threatened by illegal deforestation due to the development of palm oil plantations and the deliberate targeting of primary forest wood. These practices of deforestation even continue in protected areas. The total population of this bird is unknown but it is thought to be uncommon. It is currently classified as Near threatened by the IUCN.[1]

BirdLife International (2012). "Dinopium rafflesii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
Raffles, Sophia (1830). Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. London: John Murray. p. 669.
Bruce, M.D. (2003). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 40. The authorship of the new bird names proposed in the 'Memoir of the Life of Raffles' by his widow, Lady Sophia Raffles (1830)". Zoologische Verhandelingen. 344: 111–115 [113].
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Peters, James Lee, ed. (1948). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 6. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 146.
Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1814). Principes Fondamentaux de Somiologie (in French). Palerme. Inside front cover.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (2020). "Woodpeckers". IOC World Bird List Version 10.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
Shakya, S.B.; Fuchs, J.; Pons, J.-M.; Sheldon, F.H. (2017). "Tapping the woodpecker tree for evolutionary insight". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 116: 182–191. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.09.005. PMID 28890006.
Kirwan, G.M.; Collar, N.J. (2020). "Picus Rafflesii Vigors, 1830, re-assigned to Chloropicoides Malherbe, 1849". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 140 (2): 147–150. doi:10.25226/bboc.v140i2.2020.a5.
Short, Lester L. (1982). Woodpeckers of the World. Monograph Series 4. Greenville, Delaware: Delaware Museum of Natural History. pp. 489–490. ISBN 0-913176-05-2.
"Olive-backed woodpecker - Dinopium rafflesii". BirdLife International.

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