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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Piciformes

Familia: Picidae
Subfamilia: Picinae
Genus: Dryocopus
Species: D. hodgei – D. javensis – D. lineatus – D. martius – D. pileatus – D. schulzii
Name

Dryocopus Boie, F., 1826
Typus

Picus martius Linnaeus, 1758, = Dryocopus martius

References

Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung 19 col.977
Benz, B.W., Robbins, M.B. & Zimmer, K.J. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships of the Helmeted Woodpecker (Dryocopus galeatus): A case of interspecific mimicry? Auk 132:939-950. Full article (PDF)Reference page.
Lammertink, M., Kopuchian, C., Brandl, H.B., Tubaro, P.L. & Winkler, H. 2015. A striking case of deceptive woodpecker colouration: the threatened Helmeted Woodpecker Dryocopus galeatus belongs in the genus Celeus. Journal of Ornithology 157 (1): 109–116. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-015-1254-x AbstractReference page.

Vernacular names
lietuvių: Juodosios meletos
norsk: Svartspetter

Dryocopus is a genus of large powerful woodpeckers, typically 35–45 cm in length. It has representatives in North and South America, Europe, and Asia; some South American species are endangered. It was believed to be closely related to the American genus Campephilus, but it is part of an entirely different lineage of woodpeckers altogether (Benz et al., 2006)

Their breeding habitat is forested areas with large trees, where they nest in a large cavity in a dead tree or a dead part of a tree. They may excavate a new hole each year, creating habitat for other large cavity nesting birds. They are non-migratory permanent residents.

They are mainly black in plumage with red on the crown of the head, often as a crest. Most species also have some white areas of plumage, especially on the head, and some have additional red facial markings.

The male, female and juvenile plumages of each species usually differ, often in the extent of red on the crown and elsewhere on the head. The flight is strong and direct, and the calls are typically loud wild laughs. The drumming of these large birds can be heard from a great distance.

Dryocopus woodpeckers chip out large holes with their strong bills while searching out insects, especially beetle larvae in trees. They will also take fruits, berries, and nuts.
Taxonomy

The genus Dryocopus was introduced by the German naturalist Friedrich Boie in 1826.[2] The name is from the Ancient Greek word for a woodpecker druokopos combining druos "tree" and kopos "beating".[3] The genus forms part of the woodpecker subfamily Picinae and has a sister relationship to the genus Mulleripicus whose species are found in South and Southeast Asia. The genus Dryocopus is a member of the tribe Picini and belongs to a clade that contains five genera: Colaptes, Piculus, Mulleripicus, Dryocopus and Celeus.[4]

The genus contains six species.[5]

Image Scientific name Common name Distribution
Dryocopus lineatus (Carpintero real) (24726276181).jpg Dryocopus lineatus Lineated woodpecker Mexico south to northern Argentina and Trinidad
Pileated Woodpecker (9597212081).jpg Dryocopus pileatus Pileated woodpecker eastern North America, the Great Lakes, the boreal forests of Canada, and parts of the Pacific Coast
Dryocopus schulzii 6862513.jpg Dryocopus schulzii Black-bodied woodpecker Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay
WhiteBelliedWoodpecker.JPG Dryocopus javensis White-bellied woodpecker The Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia
Andaman Woodpecker (Dryocopus hodgei) on a tree.jpg Dryocopus hodgei Andaman woodpecker The Andaman Islands in India
Schwarzspecht.jpg Dryocopus martius Black woodpecker Span across the whole of Europe, excluding the United Kingdom, Ireland, and northern Scandinavia

References

"Master Lists – IOC World Bird List".
Boie, Friedrich (1826). "Generalübersicht". Isis von Oken (in German). 19. Col 977.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 140. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Shakya, S.B.; Fuchs, J.; Pons, J.M.; Sheldon, F.H. (2017). "Tapping the woodpecker tree for evolutionary insight". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 116: 182–191. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.09.005. PMID 28890006.

Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Woodpeckers". World Bird List Version 8.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2 April 2018.

Sources

Benz, Brett W.; Robbins, Mark B.; Peterson, A. Townsend (2006). "Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): Placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (2): 389–399. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.021. PMID 16635580.
Gorman, Gerard (2004): Woodpeckers of Europe: A Study of the European Picidae. Bruce Coleman, UK. ISBN 1-872842-05-4.
Gorman, Gerard (2011): The Black Woodpecker: A monograph on Dryocopus martius. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 978-84-96553-79-8.
Grimmett, Richard; Inskipp, Carol & Inskipp, Tim (1999): Birds of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.. ISBN 0-691-04910-6

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