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Ficedula albicollis

Ficedula albicollis (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Muscicapoidea

Familia: Muscicapidae
Genus: Ficedula
Species: Ficedula albicollis
Name

Ficedula albicollis Temminck, 1815
References

Manuel d'ornithologie ed.1 (1814): 100.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Валасяніца-белашыйка
български: Беловрата мухоловка
čeština: Lejsek bělokrký
Deutsch: Halsbandschnäpper
English: Collared Flycatcher
հայերեն: Ճանճորս սպիտակավիզ
italiano: Balia dal collare
Nederlands: Withalsvliegenvanger
svenska: Halsbandsflugsnappare
Türkçe: Halkalı sinekkapan

The collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) is a small passerine bird in the Old World flycatcher family, one of the four species of Western Palearctic black-and-white flycatchers. It breeds in southeast Europe (isolated populations are present in the islands of Gotland and Öland in the Baltic Sea, Sweden) and Eastern France to the Balkan Peninsula and Ukraine and is migratory, wintering in sub Sahara Africa.[2] It is a rare vagrant in western Europe.

This is a 12–13.5 cm long bird. The breeding male is mainly black above and white below, with a white collar, large white wing patch, black tail (although some males have white tail sides) and a large white forehead patch. It has a pale rump. The bill is black and has the broad but pointed shape typical of aerial insectivores. As well as taking insects in flight, this species hunts caterpillars amongst the oak foliage, and will take berries.
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

Non-breeding males, females and juveniles have the black replaced by a pale brown, and may be very difficult to distinguish from other Ficedula flycatchers, particularly the European pied flycatcher (F. hypoleuca) and the semicollared flycatcher (F. semitorquata), with which this species hybridizes to a limited extent.[3] F. albicollis vis-a-vis F. hypoleuca are speciating from each other by reinforcement, as evidenced by differences between colouration in sympatry versus allopatry. This is evidence for speciation by reinforcement.[4]

They are birds of deciduous woodlands, parks and gardens, with a preference for old trees with cavities in which it nests. They build an open nest in a tree hole, or man-made nest-boxes. Normally 5-7 eggs are laid. The song is slow strained whistles, quite unlike the pied flycatcher. Pied flycatchers can mimic the song of the collared flycatcher in sympatric populations.[5]

The genus name is from Latin and refers to a small fig-eating bird (ficus, "fig") supposed to change into the blackcap in winter. The specific albicollis is from Latin albus, white, and collum, "neck".[6]

The collared flycatcher is used as a model species in both ecology and genetics and it was one of the first birds that had its full genome sequenced.[7] Repeated spectrometric data taken from male Collared Flycatchers has revealed that plumage reflectance should be measured during courtship, the primary period of sexual signalling, with spectral traits declining over the breeding season. [8]
References

BirdLife International. (2019). "Ficedula albicollis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22709315A155539425. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22709315A155539425.en. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
Briedis, M.; Hahn, S.; Gustafsson, L.; Henshaw, I.; Träff, J.; Král, M.; Adamík, P. (2016). "Breeding latitude leads to different temporal but not spatial organization of the annual cycle in a long-distance migrant". Journal of Avian Biology. 47 (6): 743–748. doi:10.1111/jav.01002.
Veen T., Borge T., Griffith S.C., Saetre G.P., Bures S., Gustafsson L. & Sheldon B.C. (2001) "Hybridization and adaptive mate choice in flycatchers". Nature, 411, 45-50
Noor, Mohamed A F; (ORCID 0000-0002-5400-4408 GS 5nkhrpUAAAAJ) (1999). "Reinforcement and other consequences of sympatry". Heredity. The Genetics Society (Nature). 83 (5): 503–508. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6886320. ISSN 0018-067X. {{cite journal}}: |author2= has generic name (help); External link in |author2= (help)
J. Haavie', T. Borge, S. Bures, L. Z. Garamszegi, H. M. Lampe, J. Moreno, A. Qvarnström, J. Török, G.-P. Sætre (2004) "Flycatcher song in allopatry and sympatry - convergence, divergence and reinforcement". Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17 (2), 227–237.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. pp. 38, 167. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4..
Ellegren, Hans; Smeds, Linnéa; Burri, Reto; Olason, Pall I.; Backström, Niclas; Kawakami, Takeshi; Künstner, Axel; Mäkinen, Hannu; Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna (24 October 2012). "The genomic landscape of species divergence in Ficedula flycatchers". Nature. 491 (7426): 756–760. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..756E. doi:10.1038/nature11584. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 23103876.
Hegyi, G.; Laczi, M.; Boross, N.; Jablonsky, M.; Kötél, D.; Krenhardt, K.; Markó, M.; Nagy, G.; Rosivall, B.; Szász , E.; Garamszegi, L.Z.; Török, J. (2019). "When to measure plumage reflectance: a lesson from Collared Flycatchers Ficedula albicollis". Ibis. 161 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1111/ibi.12648.

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