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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Tyranni
Infraordo: Tyrannides
Parvordo: Thamnophilida

Familia: Thamnophilidae
Genus: Formicivora
Species: F. acutirostris – F. erythronotos – F. grantsaui – F. grisea – F. iheringi – F. intermedia – F. melanogaster – F. rufa – F. serrana

Formicivora Swainson, 1824

Typus: Turdus griseus Boddaert, 1783 = Formicivora grisea


Neorhopias Hellmayr, 1920 Anz.Orn.Gesell.Bayern p. 20
Stymphalornis Bornschein, Reinert & Teixeira, 1995

Primary references

Swainson, W.J., 1824. An Inquiry into the Natural Affinites of the Lanidae, or Shrikes; preceded by some Observations on the present state of Ornithology in this Country. Zoological Journal Vol.1:289-307. From March, 1824, to January, 1825. London. BHL Reference page. Original description p. 301 BHL

Additional references

Gonzaga, L.P. 2001. Análise filogenética do gênero Formicivora Swainson, 1825 (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae) baseada em caracteres morfológicos e vocais. Resumo de tese. Atualidades ornitológicas 102:2. Full articleReference page.
Gonzaga, L.P., Carvalhaes, A.M.P. & Buzzetti, D.R.C. 2007. A new species of Formicivora antwren from the Chapada Diamantina, eastern Brazil (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae). Zootaxa 1473: 25–44. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.1473.1.2Paywall Reference page.
Firme, D. H., & Raposo, M. A. 2011. Taxonomy and geographic variation of Formicivora serrana (Hellmayr, 1929) and Formicivora littoralis Gonzaga and Pacheco, 1990 (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae). Zootaxa 2742: 1–33. Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Buzzetti, D.R.C., Belmonte-Lopes, R., Reinert, B.L., Silveira, L.F., & Bornschein, M.R. 2013. A new species of Formicivora Swainson, 1824 (Thamnophilidae) from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 21(4): 269–291. Full article (PDF). Reference page.
Bravo, G.A., Remsen, Jr., J.V. & Brumfield, R.T.. 2014. Adaptive processes drive ecomorphological convergent evolution in antwrens (Thamnophilidae). Evolution. International Journal of Organic Evolution 68: 2757–2774. Full article (PDF) DOI: 10.1111/evo.12506Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Antwrens
español: Hormigueritos
português: Papa-formigas

Formicivora is a genus of insectivorous birds in the antbird family, Thamnophilidae. These relatively small, long-tailed antbirds are strongly sexually dichromatic. They are found in semi-open habitats in woodland and shrub in South America. They have several rows of white spots on the wings. Males are usually darker below than they are above, and sometimes have a fringe of white on the side.

The genus Formicivora was introduced by the English naturalist William Swainson in 1824.[1][2] The type species is the southern white-fringed antwren.[3] The name of the genus Formicivora combines the Latin words formica for "ant" and -vorus "eating" from vorare "to devour".[4]

The Sincorá antwren was first described in 2007.[5] While initially placed in its own genus Stymphalornis, the marsh antwren belongs in Formicivora.[6] In contrast, the black-hooded antwren is not closely related to other Formicivora and may be better placed in its own genus.[6]

There are nine species:[7]

Narrow-billed antwren, Formicivora iheringi
Black-hooded antwren, Formicivora erythronotos
Southern white-fringed antwren, Formicivora grisea
Northern white-fringed antwren, Formicivora intermedia
Serra antwren, Formicivora serrana
Black-bellied antwren, Formicivora melanogaster
Rusty-backed antwren, Formicivora rufa
Sincorá antwren, Formicivora grantsaui
Marsh antwren, Formicivora acutirostris


Swainson, William John (1824). "An inquiry into the natural affinities of the Laniadae, or shrikes; preceded by some observations on the present state of ornithology in this country". Zoological Journal. 1: 289–307 [301].
Swainson, William John (1825). "On two new genera of birds, Formicivora and Drymophila, with descriptions of several species". Zoological Journal. 2: 145-154 [145-149].
Peters, James Lee, ed. (1951). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 7. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 206.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Gonzaga, L.P.; Carvalhaes, A.M.P.; Buzzetti, D.R.C. (2007). "A new species of Formicivora antwren from the Chapada Diamantina, eastern Brazil (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1473: 25–38.
Buzzetti, D.R.C.; Belmonte-Lopes, R.; Reinert, B.L.; Silveira, L.F.; Bornschein, M.R. (2013). "A new species of Formicivora Swainson, 1824 (Thamnophilidae) from the state of São Paulo, Brazil". Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia. 21 (4): 269–291.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Antbirds". World Bird List Version 8.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 4 February 2018.

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