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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Parulidae
Genus: Geothlypis
Species: G. aequinoctialis – G. auricularis – G. beldingi – G. chiriquensis – G. flavovelata – G. formosa – G. nelsoni – G. philadelphia – G. poliocephala – G. rostrata – G. semiflava – G. speciosa – G. tolmiei – G. trichas – G. velata
G. aequinoctialis - -

Name

Geothlypis Cabanis, 1847

Typus: Turdus trichas Linnaeus, 1766 = Geothlypis trichas

Synonyms

Chamaethlypis Ridgway, 1887 Man.N.Am.Birds p. 525 BHL

References
Primary references

Cabanis J. 1847. Ornithologische Notizen I p.186–256, II p.308–352. In: Archive fur Naturgeschichte, Year 13, Vol 1, 352 pp. Nicolai'schen Buchhandlung - Berlin. First availability p. 316 BHL Reference page. p. 349 BHL

Additional references

Lovette, I.J., Pérez-Emán, J.L., Sullivan, J.P., Banks, R.C., Fiorentino, I., Córdoba-Córdoba, S., Echeverry-Galvis, M., Barker, F.K., Burns, K.J., Klicka, J., Lanyon, S.M. & Berminghan, E. 2010. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 57 (2): 753–770. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.07.018 Full article (PDF)Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Yellowthroat
suomi: Naamiokerttulit

The yellowthroats are New World warblers in the genus Geothlypis. Most members of the group have localised ranges in Mexico and Central America, but the masked yellowthroat has an extensive South American distribution, while the common yellowthroat breeds over much of North America.

All the yellowthroats have similar plumage, with yellow-green upperparts, yellow breast, and a mainly black bill. The adult male has a black facemask of variable extent, usually bordered above with a grey band. The female is similar, but lacks the black mask, and may be duller in plumage.

The breeding habitat of these warblers is typically marshes and other wet areas with dense low vegetation. The eggs, two in most species, but up to five for common yellowthroat, are laid in a lined cup nest low in grass or rank vegetation.

Yellowthroat are usually seen in pairs, and do not associate with other species. They are often skulking, and feed on a range of insects.

The taxonomy of these closely related species is complicated, and it is sometimes difficult to define which forms merit species status. For example common yellowthroat, Belding's yellowthroat, Altamira yellowthroat, and Bahama yellowthroat are sometimes considered conspecific. Conversely masked yellowthroat can be split to three or even four species. The name 'yellowthroat' is sometimes used as an alternate name for the yellow-throated leaflove.[1]

The geographical isolation of the various populations of this mainly sedentary group has led to its genetic divergence and speciation. This process can be seen in action in the case of masked yellowthroat, where the subspecies are separated by rainforest or the Andes, leading to the development of distinctive forms, such as the Central American race Geothlypis aequinoctialis chiriquensis. This form is found in the highlands of Costa Rica and western Panama, and is separated by 1000 km from its South American cousins, from which it differs in size, appearance and vocalisations.

The Kentucky warbler, mourning warbler, and MacGillivray's warbler, all previously thought to have been members of the genus Oporornis, have since been moved to Geothlypis.[2]
Species

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Common Yellowthroat by Dan Pancamo.jpg Geothlypis trichas Common yellowthroat southern Canada to central Mexico.
Belding's Yellowthroat.jpg Geothlypis beldingi Belding's yellowthroat southern Baja California, Mexico.
Altamira Yellowthroat (Geothlypis flavovelata) male.jpg Geothlypis flavovelata Altamira yellowthroat Gulf slope of northeastern Mexico
Bahama Yellowthroat (Geothlypis rostrata) held in hand, side view.jpg Geothlypis rostrata Bahama yellowthroat the Bahamas.
Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (24488815273).jpg Geothlypis semiflava Olive-crowned yellowthroat Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama.
Black-polled Yellowthroat - cropped.jpg Geothlypis speciosa Black-polled yellowthroat central Mexico and the southwestern Mexican Plateau, in Guanajuato, Michoacán, and México State.
Southern Yellowthroat (Geothlypis velata).jpg Geothlypis aequinoctialis Masked yellowthroat Central and South America
Grey-crowned Yellowthroat - Sarapiqui - Costa Rica (26652422686).jpg Geothlypis poliocephala Gray-crowned yellowthroat Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and the United States.
Geothlypis nelsoni Hooded yellowthroat Mexico north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
Geothlypis tolmiei Hungry Horse MT 2.jpg Geothlypis tolmiei MacGillivray's warbler western United States, and in boreal forests of west Canada.
Mourning Warbler (34737393215).jpg Geothlypis philadelphia Mourning warbler southern Canada, the central and eastern United States, Belieze, Bonaire, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Panama, and other Central American Islands
Geothlypis formosa Parkway NC 2.jpg Geothlypis formosa Kentucky warbler central and eastern United States, often ranging as far north as Wisconsin to Pennsylvania.


References

"Atimastillas flavicollis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-04-17.

Lovette, Irby; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Sullivan, John; Banks, Richard; Fiorentino, Isabella; Córdoba-Córdoba, Sergio; Echeverry-Galvis, María; Barker, F.; Burns, Kevin; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott; Bermingham, Eldredge (7 August 2010). "A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 57: 753–770. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.07.018. Retrieved 30 June 2020.

Curson, Quinn and Beadle, New World Warblers ISBN 0-7136-3932-6
ffrench, Richard (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd ed.). Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2.
Hilty, Birds of Venezuela ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
Stiles and Skutch, A guide to the birds of Costa Rica ISBN 0-8014-9600-4

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